Archive for the ‘Felipe del Bosque’ Tag

BEETLES: HIDING IN CLEAR VIEW   6 comments


Wildlife, nature, fauna and flora of Costa Rica.

It has been another week of sunny days and rainy nights.  Last month the immediate area experienced almost 28 inches, (706 mm), of rain.  That is approximately 1 inch per day.  However, as to be expected, the pattern of precipitation was not that evenly spread.  There were several nights with really heavy downpours which accounted for a third of the total.  There were more nights when it rained hard but not in a deluge and then there were nights when there was no rain.

Atop Cabo Matapalo, at 500 feet, (150 m), above sea level, there is little chance of flooding, all the water is runoff.  This time of year the ground is saturated so when there is a torrential downpour the water may remain on the surface forming large areas of standing water which quickly drains away.  The creek water level is high and rushes down the channels, falling over rapids, cascades and waterfalls and finally flowing into the sea.  After a night of very heavy rainfall, the creek will have turned murky brown with the volume of sediment it is carrying.  Given a few days of sun the water will have returned to its crystal-clear state, inviting you to plunge into its cooling depths as a relief from the hot and humid atmosphere of the forest.

A Typical Rainy Season Day In The Forest

You wake in the morning, opening your eyes but still not fully conscious.  You had a good night’s sleep, restful and undisturbed, but were brought out of your slumber by a distant roaring sound.  It is still dark outside so what time is it?  Early, pre-dawn, and the roar is heard again, this time joined seconds later by a response, louder roaring but much closer to your cabin.  All of a sudden the roars are echoing around the forest.  To many, the first-time visitors to a Central American rainforest, this could only be large ferocious beasts gathering to collectively do you harm.  To the more savvy, seasoned visitor this is a familiar wake-up alarm call, Howler Monkeys, announcing their location to one another so that different troops can keep their distance during the course of the day.

It did its job as far as you are concerned, you are now fully awake.  The first light of dawn starts to brighten the sky, throwing the form of the trees into dark silhouettes.  Here you are only 8⁰ north of the equator so the dawn twilight does not last for long.  The sun rises rapidly and the grey sky turns blue.  The birds are awake now.  Flying overhead are noisy macaws and parrots heading off from their roosts to the feeding grounds.  Their squawking and screeching is not the most melodious of avian calls.  From within the forest the Chestnut-backed Antbird, Black-hooded Antshrike and the Bright-rumped Atilla are some of the first choristers to greet the new day.   The males are vocally drawing up the bounds of their territories.

It is after breakfast and the sun is now high in the azure sky.  The temperatures have rapidly risen from the cool chill from when you opened your eyes.  The air is still.  You grab your camera and head off into the shade of the forest.  The only sound is that of cicadas, their loud calls increasing in intensity, volume and pitch as the morning progresses.  Here and there from different points in the unseen depths of the forest, obscured from your vision by the trunks of the trees are more birds calling.  The familiar “Who cooks for you” of the Short-billed pigeon, the high-pitched squeaky call of the Black-mandibled Toucan, it sounds more like a rusty pulley that needs oiling than the call of a bird.

You see many things close at hand to photograph, flowers, fruit, a beetle, a praying mantis, small frogs and lizards.  Up above you the Spider Monkeys put on an impressive display of acrobatics as they swing through the tree tops.  You can’t miss Spider Monkeys with their high-pitched chattering and high-energy crashing through the tree tops.  This is in complete contrast to the languid slow moving and deeply voiced Howler Monkeys.  You come across a troop of White-faced Monkeys, more leisurely in their pursuit of a meal.  You see them peeling away bark and turning leaves, always gleaning, looking for the small creatures that make up the bulk of their diet.

It is approaching midday.  The sun is directly overhead.  Despite being beneath the shade of the canopy, the temperatures have risen dramatically.  Combined with the high humidity, conditions have become like those in a well stoked sauna.  If the air was still outside the forest, within its confines there is not a breath of air.  The sweat is rolling down your face and your clothes are now soaked.  Thankfully you brought a lot of water with you and a packed lunch.  Time to take a break for some respite in order to recover you waning energy levels.

As you sit, taking in the sounds around you, a rumbling can be heard off in the distance, thunder.  You finish your sandwiches, take a swig of water, pack everything into your bag and head off down the trail once more.  You stop to photograph a line of Leaf-cutter Ants.  You need to get close to the ground and have some patience to capture the individual caste members.  You are rewarded a little later with a swarm of Army Ants, incessant in their drive forward flushing out non-flying arthropods.  They are accompanied by a mixed flock of ant-birds, woodpeckers, woodcreepers and Grey-headed Tanagers, all in a heightened state of excitement as they feed on the flying insects driven out of hiding by the Army Ant assassins.  Lots of photographic opportunities here.

It is now much later; the almost unbearable temperatures have dropped and the sun is sinking fast towards the western horizon.  Also, that rumbling is getting louder and the sky is rapidly darkening in the east.  You have filled your memory card with images so it may be astute to pick up the pace now and head back to base.  Before too long a breeze picks up and the tree crowns begin to sway.  Loose leaves and small twigs come tumbling down from the canopy.  It is rapidly darkening and the breeze becomes a wind.  The trees are now swaying more violently and you can hear branches being snapped and crashing down.  All of the monkeys start to shriek in objection to their homes being shaken in this manner.  The advancing storm has no ears and cares not for their protestations. Light rain begins to fall.

Within a shorter time than you would have liked, the sky above you has turned black.  The rumbling thunder has become loud and explosive, now accompanied by almost instantaneous flashes of lightning.  The rain comes out of the heavens with an ever-increasing intensity.  The canopy is being lashed.  Leaves and branches are torn from the trees by the sheer weight and force of the water being poured upon them.  Lightning is cracking and fissing around you, the storm is immediately overhead, these are thunderflashes and this is not a safe place to be.  The path at your feet which moments earlier was soft and damp is now a running river albeit only a couple of inches in depth.  The question is should you stop and find shelter or should you persevere on.  You chose the latter option.

Your step quickens, not too fast as you don’t want to slip and fall.  You hear a sharp crack above you, then a loud snap and a huge branch comes tumbling with force through the understory.  It hits the ground so hard that it stands upright as if it had been planted.  The flashes are lighting up the whole sky in a blinding white light.  Each boom of thunder causes you to flinch.  It is raining so heavily that you can barely open your eyes due to the stinging pain it causes you.  But you are almost there, the path out of the forest is up some stairs and around a bend on the trail.  The steps are now a series of cascades but the tumbling water does not hinder your stride.  You will soon be back in the dry comfort of your cabin.

Just as you step out of the forest and into the open garden area, the driving rain suddenly subsides to that of a light summer shower.  The black sky starts to lighten and the deep rumbles roll off into the distance.  Each flicker of lightning is still causing flashes but now over on the horizon.  Thankfully you had the foresight to pack all of your equipment into a waterproof camera bag before the deluge descended and it seems to have served its purpose well.  The rain becomes drizzle and finally peters out then stops.  The sky is now pale grey and the sun sinks to the point where the final rays light up the underside of the clouds in a deep orange.  You have just experienced a typical September day in a Costa Rican rainforest.

Beetles Hiding In Clear View

Beetles, there are thousands of species and yet if you go out with the intention of finding them you may become aware very quickly that they are not as obvious as you have thought.  Turning over rocks or peeling rotten bark from fallen trees may produce one or two species but nothing in profusion.  That is why when I head off into the forest it is never with the purpose of photographing anything specific, not unless I have seen something that I wanted to return to.  Some people go out having birds or mammals as their goal, I am always looking for smaller things, as regular readers of the blog will already know.  The camera will have my favorite 105mm macro lens attached and will be set to take photos of all manner of mini beasts in darker conditions.  The shots will be hand held as I only take the tripod if I have a certain subject in mind.

Last week I found two different species of beetle out in the open aspect of a sunny forest edge.  They were in separate locations but within the same area.  They were both sitting on top of a leaf, in bright sunshine and would not stay still.  I had to keep maneuvering around the subject to try and get a decent image.  Every time I had things set, they would turn their backs to me and wander off along the opposite length of the leaf.  Finally, after much repositioning, I managed to obtain some acceptable photographs.  One of the problems with photographing beetles is the hard, smooth and glossy exoskeleton that many of them have.  It reflects the light from the flash gun.  To obtain the depth of field that I prefer, with a moving subject I have to use very small apertures and by necessity I need to add extra light with flash.

The first beetle is a Pleasing Fungus Beetle, (Cypherotylus asperus), in the family: Erotylidae.  I am not sure why they are pleasing but fungus beetle refers to their main dietary item which may come as no surprise, fungus.  The bright red blotches against a black background is aposematic, or warning coloration.  If molested or attacked, the Pleasing Fungus Beetle emits a foul-smelling odor that would cause most would be predators to back off.

Rainforest animals. Rainforest insects. Rainforest Beetles. Coleoptera. Erotylidae. Cypherotylus asperus.

Pleasing Fungus Beetle, (Cypherotylus asperus)

The second beetle is a Leaf Beetle in the family: Chrysomelidae.  They typically have the domed body, clubbed antennae and are multi-colored.  But as there are almost 50,000 species in this family I have, so far, been stumped as to which species this is.  Should any beetle expert be reading this and would like to provide a name I would be most grateful.  The clue to the diet is once more in the name.  They feed on the leaves of a variety of vegetation.

Rainforest animals. Rainforest Insects. Beetles. Coleoptera. Chrysomelidae.

Leaf Beetle, (Chrysomelidae sp)

The Earth Moved

Walking through the forest you can often have your attention momentarily attracted by some small movement down in the leaf litter.  It may be ants, spiders, lizards, frogs or a myriad of other small creatures that live concealed beneath the carpet of rotting leaves.  It is the tread of your footfall that will disturb them and have them run for cover out of harm’s way.  Depending on the speed of the animal you may lose sight of it very quickly.  Some move from leaf to leaf.  Generally if any of these litter living denizens gets below the leaves it will be gone and unless you are lucky you will just have to imagine what you saw.  Occasionally though one will freeze when exposed to the light.  Last week, my size 13 boot thudding into the ground caused a tiny frog to jump out of the imminent descending disaster.

There are several small frogs that inhabit the dark and damp environment of the forest floor.  The squat body shape of this one revealed its identity almost immediately.  It was one of the rather delightfully named dirt frogs, this one being a Stejneger’s Dirt Frog, (Craugastor stejnegerianus).

Rainforest animals. Rainforest amphibians. Frogs. Anura. Craugastoridae. Craugastor stejnegerianus.

A tiny Stejneger’s Dirt Frog, (Craugastor stejnegerianus)

The dirt frogs are totally terrestrial frogs, they live their whole life on the forest floor and never need to go to water as many amphibians do.  They still have moist skins through which they largely breath and therefore by necessity can’t leave the confines of the damp environment under the trees.   There are several species that live in this area and Stejneger’s Dirt Frog is one of the commonest.

They belong to the family: Craugastoridae or the Fleshbelly Frogs.  Typical of this family is the reproductive habit of direct development which negates the necessity of them having to return to water to reproduce.  The frogs pair up, (I can’t say I have ever heard these frogs calling), and the female lays her eggs amongst the leaf litter on the forest floor.  There are only about 20 – 30 eggs but they are fairly large in comparison to the adults.  The egg is packed with yolk and the tadpole develops within the egg, there is no free-swimming tadpole stage.  After about 8 weeks a tiny copy of the adult emerges.

Rainforest animals. Rainforest amphibians. Rainforest Frogs. Anura. Craugastoridae. Craugastor stejnegerianus. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

Dorsal view of Stejneger’s Dirt Frog, (Craugastor stejnegerianus)

As you are walking through the forest, if you keep your gaze lowered scanning the ground then you will surely see a small piece of the earth move.  Given closer inspection then you will probably find you are looking at a dirt frog.  But take a photograph as they are not always easy to identify.

Fying Dragons.

A few weeks ago I managed to photograph a dragonfly with black bases to the wings, a Black-winged Dragonlet, (Erythrodiplax funerea).  This week I managed to capture another dragonfly but with the inverse situation of having black tips to the wings, the Large Woodskimmer, (Uracis fastigiata).  This one was found in a different area to the previously mentioned species but they had been there for several weeks.  This species was found in secondary forest, in a light gap and always close to the ground.  Once again my attempts to take a picture were always doomed to failure because every time I lifted the camera to my eye, they would fly off.  But as we know with photography patience is a virtue and finally after several weeks I got lucky.  This one stayed still long enough for me to get several pictures.

Rainforest animals. Rainforest Insects. Dragonflies. Odonata. Libellulidae. Uracis fastigiata

Large Woodskimmer, (Uracis fatigiata)

Unlike the dragonflies which can be found in open sunny locations around a body of water that have fast flight and hover, these forest species seem to be more sedentary and perch on low vegetation and only seem to move if disturbed.  Having excellent eyesight adapted to detect movement it does not take much to disturb them.  It could be that they are sit and wait predators just diligently watching for the right sized meal to pass by before taking off to capture it.

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

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An Orgy of Green Pain   6 comments


Philip Davison Nature Diaries. Bosque del Cabo Rain Forest Lodge.

Parachuting into an Orgy

The past week has been a mixture of sun and rain.  The days have been gloomy with heavy, brooding overcast skies.  Occasionally the clouds part and the sun has shone down to light up the shadows.  But the menacing grey blanket that covering the area from north to south and east to west always threatened to unleash a downpour.  Sometimes the drizzle filled the air from dawn to dusk but you knew there was more to come.  By late afternoon the light rain would turn to heavy and by the time the sun had set below the horizon then the heavens would open drenching one and all.

The amphibians have been enjoying the onset of the rainy season, their numbers increasing over the last month but these more persistent nightly deluges have had the frogs collecting in huge numbers and rejoicing in a reproductive frenzy.  One frog that responds to torrential rain is the Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog, (Agalychnis spurrelli).

Agalychnis spurrelli. Hylidae. Pseudomedusinae.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog, (Agalychnis spurrelli)

One evening, just after sunset it started to rain heavily and by next morning we had experienced 11 inches of rain.  That was the trigger that stimulated hundreds of Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frogs to leave the canopy, which is where they reside out of view, and launch themselves into the air.  This frog has a uniformly colored dark mossy green upper side.  Its flanks are a pale lemon yellow.  It has large heavily webbed hands and feet of the same buttery hue and, of course, it has the large red eyes.  As they leap out of the canopy they spread the fingers and toes so the webbing is stretched tight, quite literally into a parachute of living tissue, which allows the frogs to glide down to the vegetation surrounding the pond without ill effect.

Each male quickly establishes a territorial perch from which he begins to call in an attempt to entice an egg-laden female his way.  The call is a short, soft, almost electronically-sounding sound.  Selecting a male on the quality of his call, the deeper the sound the better, the female makes her way over to the chosen chorister, he jumps on her back and they set off to visit the pond.  The female absorbs water through her skin and fills her bladder.  Now the female, not only with a body full of eggs but also carrying the male on her back, makes her way to a deposition site.  She chooses a broad leaf overhanging the surface of the pond and she commences to lay a sheet of eggs across the leaf.  At the same time as she releases the eggs from her body the male fertilizes them.  This normally take place just before daylight.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica. Philip Davison.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog Eggs.

As dawn breaks and the sun rises, the frogs have to get out of the light and into the dark as quickly as possible.  They don’t have time to get back to the canopy, parachuting down was a quick descent but the ascent involves a 100 foot climb and there is little time.  The sun continues to steadfastly climb in the sky.  Hundreds of frogs are now scrambling desperately to escape the skin-drying effects of its harsh rays.  This was the point at which I arrived, just in time to see countless small green goblinesque figures running along branches in a desperate effort to find a not already fully accommodated shelter.  I was not the only one.  A Bare-throated Tiger Heron had found itself an early morning breakfast bonanza and was picking off the unfortunate amphibians one after the other.

The larvae will develop in the eggs for about 7 or 8 days before the gelatinous mass liquidizes and the wiggling tadpoles drop into the pond water.  There they will complete the tadpole stage and if they make it through the aquatic stage will finally emerge after 7 or 8 weeks as a tiny froglet which will eventually have to make its way to the tree tops.  The Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog is an explosive breeder and these episodes can only be witnessed following those biblical-like rain storms.

Agalychnis spurrelli. Bosque del Cabo.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frogs After Sunrise

Showing Off in the Green Room

The forest flora can be flamboyant and gaudy or subtle and subdued.  The blooms may appear abruptly in a visual feast or occur in small numbers isolated and hidden in the dark green depths the subcanopy.  Some plants flower but once a year, a spectacular show drawing the eye like a beacon which is setting the tree tops ablaze and illuminating the forest canopy in a patchwork of color on natures silvian canvas.  It is no wonder that the largest percentage of insect life resides and thrives at the tree tops.  Here you will find a kaleidoscope of dancing butterflies waltzing from bloom to bloom in search of the energy rich nectar, so vital in allowing these ephemeral beauties to complete the final stage of their short adult lives.  Other plants may flower continuously throughout the year but only producing one or two blooms at a time.

It is not just the butterflies that rely upon the flowers.  Many other insects are attracted by their rich colors and evocative scents.  The plants will sometimes target birds or mammals to do their bidding.  The plants offer the animals rewards but there is method to their bribery.  These are windless forests; a zephyr is the strongest a current of air that will move through the trees.  Pollen needs to be transported from one plant to another in order for the plants to reproduce.  It helps if the plant can target and reward a specific agent to enable its pollen to be deposited in the flower of the same species.

The plants cannot rely on wind for seed dispersal either.  Once more they have evolved the means by which to encourage animals into becoming innocent vectors of transfer and movement of the seeds that will potentially give rise to the next generation.

Over the last week as I was walking along the paths through the forest I could see some of those secretive flowers blooming in the shadows as well as some bright vivid forms, their colorful flower heads breaking up the somber borders of the trails.  One of the more subtle blooms was that of the Spiral Ginger,  (Costus scaber).  The flowering head is a rather stout, deep red spike composed of bracts, each of which will produce a bloom.

Costus scaber. Costaceae. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

Spiral Ginger, (Costus scaber)

The fiery orange, yellow-tipped flower sticking out of the bract attracts in hummingbirds which are the principal pollinator of this species.  The colors red, orange and yellow are commonly used by plants to attract hummingbirds, these being the colors in the spectrum that are complementary to the background green of the leaves.  These are also very hot colors whereas green is a cool color and so they readily stand out, particularly to animals that have keen color vision such as birds.  The hummingbirds hover in front of the flowers and probe within searching for the nectaries.  As they do so, the head and bill pick up pollen from the anthers which is transferred to the stigma of the next flower it visits thereby effectively pollinating the plant.

The family Costaceae is closely related to the ginger family: Zingerberaceae.  Most gingers are Asian but there are some gingers native to the Neotropics.  Most costas are American but there are some costas that are native to Asia.  There are 23 species of costa native to Costa Rica, 14 of which are found on the Osa Peninsula.  As they all look similar it is not too hard to identify them as costas but it is a little more difficult to identify them to species level.

Queen of Pain

Insects are fascinating creatures to photograph.  Once you have downloaded the image and zoom in, as long as the picture is in sharp focus, then the body form and colors become compelling.  All of the joints, the body plates and the detail of the head and wings will keep the naturalist mesmerized.  You can conjecture as to the function of all those different hairs and how the body parts articulate.  Not only that but how does the creature live, what is life history and what are the multitudinous, complex interconnected threads that tie it into the ecosystem of its habitat.  Insects complete their lives in almost as many ways as there are species.  Many insect’s lives are a mystery to us, we simply have no idea how they get from egg to adult.  That is not surprising as there are more species of insect on the planet than any other group of animals.  Because we don’t know, then that makes us more eager to study and discover more information to unravel those mysteries.

One groups of animals, the Hymenoptera, bees, wasps and ants, provide an endless source of material for research.  Many of them have well documented life histories and they work to a general pattern but there are variations.  I saw this wasp guarding its brood in a nest under a leaf in the tropical garden.

Although the wasp appeared to be alone, it was one of the social wasps belonging to the family: Vespidae.  The nest is made of carton which is a chewed up fibrous vegetable material, quite often wood, which forms the cells into which the eggs are laid.  The egg hatches and the larva develops, growing rapidly on a diet of chewed up insect prey captured by the queen.  The queen only uses her sting for defense, the prey is caught and chewed-up in the mandibles.  A pale larva lacking in pigment, can be seen in one of the cells.   When the larva pupates, the entrance of the cell is capped by a carton lid from which a new adult will emerge sometime later.

Polistinae sp. Hymenoptera. Vesperidae. Polistinae.

Paper Wasp Queen on Nest, (Polistinae sp)

There were, in fact, two wasps sitting on the nest.  This suggests that they belong to the subfamily: Polistinae.  These colonies consist of one or two queens both of which are responsible for the construction of the nest and raising the offspring without the aid of other workers.

Even if nobody told you, then you would learn very quickly from painful experience to leave wasps alone.  The black and yellow coloration of bees, wasps and hornets is the most visible of all color combinations.  As I have already mentioned, the wasp does not use its sting to subdue prey but rather uses it to defend itself.  But, as in many cases, it is better to use a deterrent rather than become involved in a physical battle where even though you may win, the probability is that you will sustain some damage yourself.  To ward off any potential threat, the wasps use threatening coloration.  It does not take too many painful encounters before most creatures would learn to avoid anything sporting that vividly distinctive black and yellow.

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

The Savage Death of a Velvet Cat   2 comments


Philip Davison Nature Diaries. Bosque del Cabo Rain Forest Lodge.

Sunny Days are Back Again

The weather has most certainly turned a corner.  After the record-breaking deluge that occurred continually over the course of the last five weeks we now have the opposite situation, no rain.  Not a single drop of rain has fallen over the past week.  The skies have been clear and bright blue.  The sun has been shining brightly.  The temperatures are on the rise.  The night skies have been clear and filled with stars.  Just within the space of seven days, the formerly soft muddy trails have started to harden up.  There are, of course areas where the ground is stiff soft and in places water continues to run off but these are now few and far between.  One trail had a new lake form as the water was unable to run off.  Walking along a familiar path I was finding myself waist deep in water.  I imagined that this new water feature may persist for months before the ground was exposed once more.  I was wrong.  Walking the trail a few days ago, all the water had gone.  The path was very muddy but no longer submerged.

Bosque del Cabo Rain Forest Lodge. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

Zapatero Trail at Bosque del Cabo Rain Forest Lodge.

It was fortunate that the heavy rain stopped as the flowering season for many of the trees commences in December.  Should the trees bloom and then become bombarded with persistent downpours, the flowers can be knocked from the trees before they have been pollinated.  The result of this is a lack of fruit later in the dry season as the plants have not set seed.  There are many animals whose lives depend on the bounteous supply of mixed fruits that comprise their diet that should the flowering and fruiting seasons fail then they simply starve to death.  This happened in 2005 when substantial numbers of Spider Monkeys and Toucans were, quite literally, just dropping out of the trees.  Necropsies carried out by veterinarians showed that they were suffering from very low body fat.  They were starving to death.  Everything looks good at the moment for a bumper harvest as I have seen many trees starting to produce blooms.

Golfo Dulce. Cabo Matapalo. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

The Sun is Shining Over the Golfo Dulce Once More.

Caught in the Eye of a Cat

The frogs are still out in numbers but those numbers will start to dwindle as we head into the dry season.  There are creatures that feed on frogs and they too have been out and about at night, the snakes.  One of the commoner snakes around the pond after sunset is the Cat-eyed Snake, (Leptodeira septentrionalis).  It feeds on frogs at all stages of their life history.  More particularly it searches out clumps of Red-eyed Green Tree Frog eggs which it finds suspended beneath the leaves overhanging the water.  The gelatinous masses are stuck in position and when the tadpoles reach about 7 or 8 days in age, the jelly liquidizes allowing the tadpoles to drop into the water where they complete the initial stage of their life history before emerging as froglets.  Frogs eggs make a perfect meal for the snake, they don’t run away or fight back and are packed with protein.  At the height of the amphibian breeding season, May, June and July, there are so many egg masses that the snakes start to look well fed and bloated.  Now, because there is little amphibian reproduction taking place, the snakes also fish for the tadpoles from beneath the water surface, take froglets as the emerge from the water and if they get the opportunity they will eat the adults too.

Red-eyed Green Tree Frog.

Red-eyed Green Tree Frog, (Agalychnis callidryas)

Agalychnis callidryas eggs

Red-eyed Green Tree Frog Eggs

Cat-eyed Snake

Cat-eyed Snake, (Leptodeira septentrionalis)

Leptodeira septentrionalis

Cat-eyed Snake. Close up.

The Fatal Velvet Kiss

Whereas the Cat-eyed Snakes feed on the smaller frogs, there is a much larger snake which feeds on the larger frogs.  One of the largest frogs in Costa Rica is the Savage’s Thin-fingered Frog, (Leptodactylus savagei).  A huge amphibian might make a satisfying for meal for any number of creatures.  To lower the risk of being predated upon Savage’s Thin-fingered Frog has several defenses.  It has a toxic skin secretion that can cause intense irritation of mucus membranes.  Should this prove ineffective it has a secondary defensive measure.  When it is caught, it issues a loud cry not dissimilar to a crying baby.  More importantly the call resembles the distress call of young caiman.  If there any adult female caiman in the area they charge in to defend their young, which means hopefully as far as the frog is concerned, it can then make its escape as its attacker is attacked.

Savage's Thin-fingered Frog

Savage’s Thin-fingered Frog, (Leptodactylus savagei)

But there are predators from which there is generally no escape.  It is not uncommon to see by the pond at night some substantially large sized Terciopelos, (Bothrops asper).  They are large pit-vipers in the same subfamily as rattlesnakes.  Like rattlesnakes they have a venomous bite that spells certain death for any prey victim it strikes.  An adult female can reach up to 6 feet, (2 meters), in length.  A snake that size demands a big meal and the Savage’s Thin-fingered Frog fits the bill.

Once the sun sets out come the Terciopelos.  They place themselves around the pond where an encounter with a frog is likely.  They are ambush predators; the cryptic coloration of muted browns and greys camouflage them perfectly against the background.  They remain motionless, camouflage works best if it is still.  Frogs, being mostly nocturnal, have large light gathering eyes.  They rely on movement to find food which is usually anything smaller than themselves, particularly arthropods, but sometimes smaller frogs too.  But the only movement they will detect from a hungry coiled Terciopelo will be one that is over in a flash.

Terciopelo. Crotalinae.

Terciopelo, (Bothrops asper)

The pit-viper is not so visually acute especially at night although its eyes will detect close movement.  Once the feeding response has been stimulated then the tongue comes into play, slowly flicking out then in again, each time tasting the air.  The tongue can detect parts per million of scent particles in the air and because it is forked it can pick up the gradient of a scent plume.  You and I may not know what a frog smells like but the snake does.  Then there are the pits that give it the sinister name pit viper.  These lie one on either side of the head between the eye and the nostril.  They are lined with cells that detect minute differences in background infra-red radiation.  They work best at responding to the presence of warm blooded prey such as rodents but their efficiency could also differentiate the small difference in body heat of even a cold-blooded creature such as a frog against the background temperature.

The unsuspecting frog passes by.  The snake has already drawn its head and neck into tightly sprung S-shaped.  The strike happened so fast that it would probably have been unaware, there would have been no time to react, no chance of escape.  As the snake’s head shoots forward and the jaws open, two long hinged fangs that lie flat against the upper part of the mouth now swing down.  They are simply two hypodermic syringes attached to glands that contain virulent life-ending cytotoxic venom.  The fangs puncture the skin like two needles, the force of the bite pushes them deep into internal tissues and organs.  The snake quickly recoils to avoid any retaliatory action by the victim in its final moments, not that a frog could inflict any damage but the bite of a rodent might.  The quantity of venom injected will spell doom and instant death for the unfortunate amphibian.  It probably would not feel anything from this lethal injection, the effects of which would most certainly be instantaneous.

The frog takes one or two steps forward then collapses dead in its tracks.  The snake is in no hurry.  The meal is ready whenever it would care to dine.  Lying patiently in the shadows the Terciopelo begins to smell the air with its tongue once more.  Once it is feels secure in the demise of its victim it slips forward, the tongue constantly flicking in and out over the cadaver.  It is searching for the head.  Snakes have no way of rendering a meal into small pieces and must swallow the prey whole.  Savage’s Thin-fingered Frog is a giant among amphibians, its body larger than the snakes head.  To deal with this inconvenience the snakes lower jaw disengages at the midpoint as do the upper and lower jaws where they hinge together at the side of the head.  Now the snakes gape can accommodate the huge frog body.  The snakes skin is highly elastic allowing it to stretch as it moves forward over the meal and with continuous backward moving S-shaped waves the feast is delivered finally to the stomach.  The snake moves away back into the shadow of the undergrowth where it will lie motionless for some time until it has digested the hearty dinner.

Terciopelo. Leptodactylus savagei

Terciopelo eating a Savage’s Thin-fingered Frog

Payback Time

There are times when even the top predators can become prey.  Where there are snakes then there might be snakes that eat snakes.  Sure enough on occasion by the pond where the Terciopelos lie in wait there is a hunter that actively seeks them out.  A hunter that is immune to the deadly venom.  A hunter that can overpower with impunity its adversary.  That hunter is the Mussurana, (Clelia Clelia)..

The Mussurana is a snake with a solidly muscled body.  It has a beautiful deep gloss grey color which radiates a fabulous deep blue iridescence.  The underside is a soft eggshell cream.  It is a powerful constrictor.  The teeth at the back of the jaws are strong and allow it to hold onto its writhing victim while it throws around it those ever-tightening coils.  This is a non-contest, the Terciopelo has little or no chance.  Finally, it succumbs and expires.  The hunter has become the hunted and the frogs have one less problem in their territory.

Mussurana.

Mussurana, (Clelia clelia)

Philip Davison is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based In Costa Rica

A New Age Begins   3 comments


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Week Ending 11th December 2015

Weekly Weather

Average High Temp 101ºF (38.3ºC)               Average Low Temp 75ºF (24.3ºC)

Average Rainfall 1 ins (25.4mm)                    Total Rainfall 7 ins (177.8mm)

Wet and Dry

The dry season at Bosque del Cabo Rain Forest Lodge always experiences a stuttered beginning.  The lodge is located on the south west tip of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica overlooking the Pacific Ocean to the south and the Golfo Dulce to the east.  The region is covered by some of the last remaining tropical forest on the Pacific Coast of Central America.  Due to the pronounced seasonality of the area having a profoundly dry five months followed by a wet seven months the forests here are more correctly classified as tropical seasonal forests as opposed to tropical rain forests which are not subject to the annual dry period.

The heaviest rains of the year fall between September and November.  By December the daily deluge abates and we gradually see more of the sun.  It is easy to be lulled into a false sense of “the summer is here” as commonly a few dry, bright days with blue skies will be followed by another week of torrential downpours.  But eventually the faltering weather passes through the transitional phase and settles into a more predictable pattern.  Given a few weeks of steady, dry heat and the plant life will begin to flower.  The number of butterfly species and individuals that had dropped in the wet season begins to build once more so the days are now filled with beautiful, brightly colored wings adorned in poster reds, yellows and orange dancing around the flower heads.

There is never a shortage of mammal or bird sightings.  Currently there are many migratory warblers and tanagers chattering noisily in mixed flocks as they move from tree to tree in search of insects or fruit to eat depending on their specific diet.  The resident bird populations do not mind those long distance travelers returning to spend the winter in the warmer climes of the tropics and join quite readily with their travelling cousins in large flocks.  Monkeys abound in the trees, constantly on the move looking for food whether it is flowers, young leaves, fruit or insects.  Under the trees the large ground living rodents, Agoutis, feed on the fallen fruit and large heavily coated seeds.  Solitary male White-nosed Coatis are on the lookout for anything they can get their paws on; grubs, crabs, bird’s eggs and chicks as well as fruit or discarded food in the bins of the restaurant.  The gregarious females with young patrol in large foraging packs looking for the same food as the males but not with the same bold abandon.

The peace of the hot still sultry afternoon atmosphere is occasionally permeated by the call of a mammal or bird.  The ever active Spider Monkeys let out a series of high-pitched shrieks which sporadically turn into a hysterical frantic screaming match.  From deep in the forest the doleful Howler Monkeys bark and roar their disapproval of some irritation.  The White-faced monkeys oblivious to the presence of human observers chitter and chatter amongst themselves.  Coming from the surrounding vegetation are the chirps and cheaps of the warblers and tanagers.  But for the most part the soporific pulsating heat and the throbbing silence serve to create a languid attitude for visitors to the tropics.

Feed Me

All of a sudden the siesta is interrupted by a harsh ear-piercing screech.  Several birds of prey inhabit the area and neither the hawks nor the falcons have been blessed with a melodious call.  Commonly seen sitting at the top of the palms or on the ground are the Yellow-headed Caracaras, (Milvago chimachima).  Despite their raptorial appearance these elegant members of the falcon family are generally carrion feeders.  They can also be seen riding the backs of cattle feeding on bovine ticks.  Due to their association with cattle they are commonly seen in open pastureland.  Until 1973 they had not been recorded in Costa Rica but following widespread deforestation their distribution and geographical range spread north from Panama into Costa Rica and they can now be seen in Nicaragua.

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That nasty nasal screech was an adult Yellow-headed Caracara calling from on the ground but there was another call, similar yet more urgent.  Not too far from the adult was a newly fledged youngster that was making its first foray from the nest.  It had not yet mastered the art of flight and was demanding food from the parent bird that was watching warily over its offspring’s pitifully laborious progress hopping and jumping across the ground.  The brown speckled shabby looking youngster bore little resemblance to its sleek yellow-faced dark-browed parent standing guard over its precarious and vulnerable position.

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From Sublime to Ridiculous

Another bird seen either high or low is the Turkey Vulture, (Cathartes aura).  As you look up into the deep blue tropical sky it is likely that you will see flocks of birds soaring on the thermals.  Silhouetted against the azure background the shapes and shades circling above you will help discern the different species present.  Long thin wings bent back from the center like a Batman motive combined with a forked tail easily characterize the Magnificent Frigatebird.  A huge bird with broad, wide wings fingered at the end and divided into a monochrome white leading edge and black trailing edge leave no mistake that this is a King Vulture.  Similar in shape but uniformly dark except for grey fingered tips is the Black Vulture.  Soaring with them with the same wing form but with longer tail and complete grey trailing edge is the Turkey Vulture.

On the ground there is no mistaking the Turkey Vulture for its head bare of feathers is bright red.  Like the Yellow-headed Caracara the Turkey Vulture feeds on carrion but unlike its falcon cousin which locates food visually, the vulture has a highly developed olfactory sense and can locate the chemical signature of decomposition following the plume of molecules of death to their source hidden beneath the forest canopy.  They can often be seen beneath the palm trees feeding on the fallen palm fruit.

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Vultures are not everyone’s favorite bird but they play a vital ecological role in disposing of rotting carcasses and rubbish that won’t make to a landfill site.

Fruit and Nuts

Sitting beneath the palm trees in the company of vultures one will more often than not see Agoutis, (Dasyprocta punctata).  These large ground living rodents are related to Capybaras, Coypus, Pacas and more familiarly Guinea Pigs.  Along with the vultures they are waiting for the palm nuts to fall.  Agoutis are essentially seed eaters and have the ability to sit back on their haunches while holding the seed in their front paws which they can manipulate and turn allowing them to easily gnaw through very tough seed coats such as nuts.

At the moment there are a lot of fruits on the grapefruit tree which when ripe fall.  Eagerly awaiting this softer option dropping from above there are some Agouti individuals that pick up the sizable citrus prize in their mouths and carry it off to be eagerly consumed.  They do not eat the peel but rather the soft juicy segments inside.

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Whereas during the day vultures and Agoutis can be seen frequenting the palm trees at night it is possible to see another creature that utilizes the palms.  If you look a little more closely at what might seem like old and dropping palm fronds you will see that they will have had another force at work.  Something has nicked through the veins of the frond to be point where it folds over.  Take a look inside and there you will most likely find the culprit responsible for this chiropteran topiary – the Tent-making Bats, (Uroderma bilobatum).

The Tent-making Bats use the tents as either day roosts or night roosts.  If they are using them as a day roost there can be as many as forty bats hanging under the frond.  They regularly change the location of each roost they are using as predators would quickly figure out where to get an easy meal.  One of the commonest predators of the tent making bats are the Squirrel Monkeys.  During the day they identify which roosts are being used by the bats climb to the fronds above and then drop onto the roost.  The startled bats come fluttering from underneath where they are picked off by the monkeys.

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Currently they are being used as night roosts.  Once the sun has set the bats leave the day roosts and fly to the selected night roosts where they wait until it is very dark before they go foraging for food.  The Tent-making Bats are fruit-eating bats and use night roosts which are never more than 80 – 100 meters away from the nearest fruiting trees which in this area are figs.  The carry the figs in their mouths back to the night roosts whereupon landing they then hold the fruit between their wings, peel off the skin with the teeth and eat the pulp.  Just before the sun rises they leave the night roosts and return to the day roosts where they will pass the day sleeping.

Philip Davison is a biologist, writer and photographer based in Costa Rica.

Prickly Dance in Color   6 comments


Felipe del Bosque Blog December 16th 2013

Felipe-del-Bosque

Summertime

There is no longer any doubt about the fact that we are in the dry season.  We are now receiving very little rain if any at all.  It won’t be long before the dry conditions stimulate the trees into flowering.  Some of the December blooms are already starting to appear.  The distinctive yellow blossoms of the Ajo Tree, (Caryocar costaricense), are beginning to fall and cover the forest paths in various areas.  Once the Ajo trees are flowering en masse, the scent of  garlic from which they derive their name can be smelled everywhere in the forest.

Towards the end of last week more and more clouds started to gather on the horizon until one morning the sun was blotted out and the rain fell continuously till lunchtime.  The afternoon remained very dark and gloomy.  In total the amount falling didn’t amount to much but it did serve to dampen anyone out walking in it.

Prickly Pig

The female White-lipped Peccary, (Tayassu pecari), still comes around every day in front of the restaurant, generally at breakfast and lunchtimes, to feed on the fallen palm fruits.  The much larger male has wandered further afield and I have been seeing him around the area at the entrance of the Zapatero Trail.

The Titi Trail is still alive with Collared Peccary, (Tayassu tajacu), activity.  There is a large herd that can be easily seen when walking the trail.  They are no longer inclined to move too far from the path when approached.  They don’t seem to mind human presence if they can see you coming.  If they are startled then they grunt, crack their teeth and trot off into the low growing vegetation.

All the usual mammals are around the grounds but this week on the Titi Trail the cameras caught on video a Tome’s Spiny Rat, (Proechimys semispinosus).  The spiny rats are caviomorph rodents in the Family: Echimyidae and are therefore more closely related to the agoutis and pacas than to the mice and rats most visitors are familiar with, (Family: Muridae).

Tome's-Spiny-Rat

The spines that give the rat its name lie flat in amongst the fur.  Tome’s Spiny Rats also have the ability to break the tail should that be the part of the body the predator grabs.  The tail does not regenerate so more often than not spiny rats are seen with short tails or none at all.

Blurring the Lines

While out last week conducting the butterfly counts my attention was captured by some movement in amongst the vegetation of a low growing shrub.  With closer scrutiny I could see a small bird, obviously a female, hopping between the branches and plucking the snow white fruits of one of the Psychotria sp one after the other, mashing them up in her bill and swallowing the pulp.  This was the drab green female Red-capped Manakin, (Ceratopipra mentalis).  Within a few seconds she was joined by a male who ostentatiously overcompensates for his plain partner.  The male is a small jet black bird with a bright red head and fluorescent yellow legs.  It is not easy to ignore his presence.

Red-capped-Manakin         Red-capped-Manakin         Red-capped-Manakin

The manakins in general are fruit-eating birds.  Normally in terms of sexual selection with birds the female with select which male she is going to mate with depending upon the quality and quantity of food a male presents to her during the courtship period so that she can see how good of a provider he is going to be.  Being fruit-eaters if the male were to present fruit to the female she would not be particularly impressed as she is surrounded by the stuff and so it is not so hard to find.

To show off the quality of their genetic viability the male manakins, like a lot of fruit-eating birds around the world, have evolved very flamboyant plumages and very elaborate dances.  They all gather together in a lek.  Each male sets up his own dance platform.  The females sit on the ground and watch the performance.  The dance of the mle Re-capped Manakin takes place on the horizontal branch coming from the side of a trunk.  His like a tiny Michael Jackson on amphetamine sulphate moonwalking at double quick speed.  He moves very quickly backwards along the branch and then stops and throws in a little bit of Flamenco.  He raises his wings which causes a loud repeated clacking sound.  The females watching this display choose the male with the best dance moves.  They give him the nod, he jumps down mates with her and then continues to dance.

Sometimes when you are walking through the forest you will see a male manakin dancing on his own.  There is no lek, there are no females.  It is the young ones practicing their moves because if he doesn’t get the steps right he won’t score with the girls.

Sun Dancers

The clouds of Green Urania moths, (Urania fulgens) that have been prevalent over the past month have now dwindled in number.  You can still see and odd one or two which take to the air when approached, flutter around and then alight once more on a sunlit leaf.

On the sunniest of days the butterflies can be seen flying on whichever trail you are walking.  Most of the butterflies are found at the top of the canopy.  At the forest edge, essentially that area where the canopy descends to the ground, the is the opportunity to see those species that would otherwise only be seen 100 feet above your head.  There are also patches of plants around the gardens that provide an attractive supply of nectar for the butterflies.  It is not uncommon to see many individuals of many species of many families feeding from the bright orange and yellow flowers of the Lantana, (Lantana camara).  Here you will find the gaudy primary colors of the Longwings which are so visibly obvious mixed with the more subtly colored satyrs and the occasional hairstreak.  But the dry season has only just started.  By the time we get to February there will be so many butterflies to dazzle the visitors with not only a visible treat but a stunning wealth of diversity.

Anartia-fatima         Dryas-iulia         Corticea-corticea

Heliconius-erato         Marpesia-berania         Dione-juno

Pareuptychia-ocirrhoe         Marpesia-berania         Vehilius-stictomenes

True Colors

As I mentioned above many of the trees will be starting to flower soon.  Some of them already have.  There are a lot of plants around the grounds that flower year round, for this reason they are used as decorative ornamentals.  Not all of the plants in the grounds are native to Costa Rica, the gardens boast a variety of exotics from all corners of the tropical world.  Within both the native and non-native species there has been a great deal of selective breeding going on to produce hybrids that have more colorful and showy blooms than their natural counterparts.  Some of them have been manipulated to produce strangely shaped vegetative or flowering parts.

The Canna Lily, (Canna spp), is found in the flower beds bordering some of the paths in the tropical garden.  This is one of those ubiquitous hybrids found growing in gardens the length and breadth of  Costa Rica.  Its fancy flower with brown speckled yellow petals provides year round color to any flower border.

Canna-Lily

At the bottom of the tropical garden, in the vicinity of the pond there is currently a riot of red.  The Poro tree, (Erythrina lanceolata), is currently in full bloom.  The very distinctive clusters of shocking red scimitar-shaped flowers are held at the tip of the long slender branches.  Once the blooms have been pollinated then long reddish tinged pendulous pods housing the beans are produced.  The Poro trees are currently bearing both flowers and beans.  If you want to see hummingbirds this would be the place to go as there are a variety of species visiting the flowers.

Poro

Erythrina-lanceolata

Sometimes the fruit of a tree can be just as diagnostic as its flowers.  As many of the trees bloom at the top of the canopy it is not always easy to see the flowers.  There a several nutmeg producing trees in the forests of Bosque del Cabo.  They don’t have the same aroma or flavor of the Indonesian nutmegs, (Myristica fragrans) which we use it our kitchens but they do belong to the same family: Myrisicaceae.  The nutmegs of Bosque all belong to the genus: Virola.  There are lots of Virola species and each has one has a slightly different looking fruit.  The one that has been fruiting recently is Virola sebifera.  This produces clusters of green fruits which when they ripen then split apart to reveal the seed, the nutmeg.  This is surrounded by a bright red membrane called the aril.

Birds have acute color vision and the bright red color of the aril attracts the attention of fruit-eating birds like the Chestnut-mandibled Toucan, (Ramphastos swainsonii).  The aril is very tasty and very nutritious.  Once the toucan has digested the aril it is left with a gut full of big heavy nutmegs which is not conducive to flight so they regurgitate them hence dispersing the seeds.

Virola-sebifera

Philip is a biologist, writer and photographer at Bosque del Cabo Rainforest lodge on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

www.bosquedelcabo.com

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming book:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

Temperature and Rainfall

Average Daily Rainfall 0.03 ins.  Total Weekly Rainfall 0.19 ins

Average Daily Rainfall 0.69 mm.  Total Weekly Rainfall 4.85 mm

Highest Daily Temp 88°F.  Lowest Daily Temp 75°F.

Highest Daily Temp 31.2°C.  Lowest Daily Temp 25.1°C.

Species List for the Week

Mammals

  • Mantled Howler Monkey
  • Spider Monkey
  • White-faced Capuchin Monkeys
  • Greater White-lined Bat
  • Tent-making Bat
  • Nine-banded Armadillo
  • Agouti
  • Tome’s Spiny Rat
  • White-nosed Coati
  • Collared Peccary
  • White-lipped Peccary

Birds

  • Red-lored Amazon
  • Scarlet Macaw
  • Crested Guan
  • Great Curassow
  • Crested Caracara
  • Laughing Falcon
  • Yellow-headed Caracara
  • Pale-billed Woodpecker
  • Northern Barred Woodcreeper
  • Black-hooded Antshrike
  • Chestnut-backed Antbird
  • Rufus Piha
  • Short-billed Pigeon
  • White-tipped Dove
  • Long-billed Hermit
  • Rufus-tailed Hummingbird
  • Stripe-throated Hermit
  • Blue-crowned Manakin
  • Red-capped Manakin
  • Chestnut-mandibled Toucan
  • Grey-headed Tanager
  • Summer Tanager
  • Bright-rumped Atilla
  • Dusky-capped Flycatcher
  • Golden-crowned Spadebill
  • Great Kiskadee
  • Riverside Wren
  • Black-throated Trogon
  • Great Tinamou
  • Black Vulture
  • Turkey Vulture

Reptiles

  • Barred Ameiva
  • Basilisk
  • Cat-eyed Snake
  • Four-lined Ameiva
  • Golfo Dulce Anolis
  • Litter Skink
  • Mediterranean House Gecko
  • Terciopelo

Amphibians

  • Banana Frog
  • Black and Green Poison Arrow Frog
  • Fitzinger’s Rain Frog
  • Marine Toad
  • Milky Frog
  • Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Rough-skinned Dirt Frog
  • Savage’s Thin-fingered Frog
  • Stejneger’s Dirt Frog

Butterflies

  • Adelpha cytherea
  • Anartia fatima
  • Anartia jatrophae
  • Antirrhea philoctetes
  • Archeaoprepona demophon
  • Battus polydamus
  • Corticea corticea
  • Dryas iulia
  • Eurema albula
  • Eueides aliphera
  • Eueides lybia
  • Eurema albula
  • Glutophrissa drusilla
  • Heliconius erato
  • Heliconius hecale
  • Heliconius ismenius
  • Heliconius sapo
  • Heraclides cresphontes
  • Hermeuptychia hermes
  • Morpho helenor
  • Morpho menelaus
  • Pareuptychia ocirrhoe
  • Parides erithalion
  • Philaethria dido
  • Phoebis agarithe
  • Phoebis argante
  • Phoebis sennae
  • Pierella helvina
  • Pierella luna
  • Pyrisitia nise
  • Pyrgus oileus
  • Pyrrhogyra crameri
  • Siproeta stictomenes
  • Urbanus tanna
  • Vehilius stictomenes

Plants

  • Anthurium salvinii Flowering and Fruiting
  • Alpinia purpurata Flowering
  • Allamandra cathartica Flowering
  • Apeiba tibourbou Flowering
  • Aphelandra golfodulcensis Flowering
  • Arachis pintoi Flowering
  • Aristolochia gaudoti Flowering
  • Arundina graminifolia Flowering
  • Attalea rostrata Fruiting
  • Baltimora recta Flowering
  • Brownea macrophylla Flowering
  • Brunfelsia grandiflora Flowering
  • Calathea marantafolia Flowering and Fruiting
  • Cananga odorata Flowering
  • Canna x generalis Flowering
  • Cascabella thevetia Flowering and Fruiting
  • Chrysobalanus icaco Flowering and Fruiting
  • Citrus spp Flowering and Fruiting
  • Clusia rosea Flowering and Fruiting
  • Clusia vallerii Flowering
  • Cocos nucifera Flowering and Fruiting
  • Costus osae Flowering
  • Costus speciosus Flowering
  • Couroupita guianensis Flowering
  • Cresentia alata Flowering and Fruiting
  • Crotolaria retusa Flowering and Fruiting
  • Emilia fosbergii Flowering and Fruiting
  • Etlingera elatior Flowering
  • Ficus citrifolia Fruiting
  • Ficus insipida Fruiting
  • Guatteria amplifolia Flowering
  • Hedychium coronarium Flowering
  • Heliconia chartacea Flowering
  • Heliconius clinophylla Flowering and Fruiting
  • Heliconia latispatha Flowering
  • Heliconia longiflora Flowering
  • Heliconia pogonantha Flowering
  • Heliconia psittacorum Flowering
  • Heliconia rostrata Flowering
  • Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Flowering
  • Hymenaea coubaril Fruiting
  • Ixora coccinea Flowering
  • Lantana camara Flowering and Flowering
  • Mimosa pudica Flowering
  • Morinda citrifolia Flowering and Fruiting
  • Musa acuminata Flowering and Fruiting
  • Pandanus sp Fruiting
  • Pleiostachya pruinosa Flowering
  • Plumeria rubra Flowering
  • Rhynchospora nervosa Flowering
  • Solanum aturense Flowering
  • Stachytarpheta sp Flowering
  • Thunbergia erecta Flowering
  • Tocoyena pittieri Fruiting
  • Virola guatemalensis Fruiting
  • Virola sebifera Fruiting
  • Zingiber spectabile Flowering

 

 

Deadly Nectar   2 comments


Felipe del Bosque Blog August 12th 2013

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Beach Weather

Weatherwise the past week has been one of sunshine and showers.  The week started wet but as we progressed through the days then the sun became more and more of a feature until finally over the weekend the days were warm and cloudless.  We even managed a few nights without rain. The rain that did fall was not too heavy, just enough to keep things moist and help maintain a flow of water in the creek.

Building Blocks

Over recent years there has been a downturn in the fortunes of the White-nosed Coatis, (Nassua narica).  Their numbers fell precipitously and for a period of several years the individuals that were seen appeared to suffering some sort of disease.  Their fur was sparse and mangy-looking and their demeanor seemed lethargic and lacking their normal inquisitive vitality.  Last year the males, which are solitary, (the name of a single male coati is Coati Mundi), were back sniffing around the grounds in search of whatever they could find.  This year the grounds have been home to roaming bands of gregarious females with a plethora of young in attendance.  It would seem that whatever malady had apparently been affecting them seems to have run its course and now people can see them with relative ease on most of the trails.  The Australian Screw Pines, (Pandanus sp), have been fruiting recently and it is not uncommon to see one the male White-nosed Coatis at the top of the plant ripping the exotic pinecone-looking fruit to pieces.

Screw Pine

Another animal whose numbers appear to be on the increase are the Collared Peccaries, (Tayassu tajacu).  They can be seen on any of the trails but the Titi Trail seems to be their preferred habitat.  Everyone walking the Titi Trail will invariably come into contact with the peccaries.  The Bosque Trail Camera Project has given us the opportunity of observe 24 hours/day, 7 days/week the animal movement at least on that one trail.  Each week when the camera memory is downloaded there is an air of anticipation and excitement as to what will have passed by over the previous week.  Inevitably it is the peccaries, coatis and the Agoutis, (Dasyprocta punctata), that take centre stage in regards to numbers and frequency with some lesser players in the weekly cycle of activity who taking up the supporting roles.

Bingo

We did get our first photo of a Puma, (Puma concolor), this week on the Titi Trail.  It will come as no surprise to regular readers of this blog that it looks like the resident and distinctive female “Half Tail” that walked through the cameras field of vision.  Unfortunately she did so in such a fashion that she triggered the camera as she was passing and so we are missing her head.  For reasons as yet unknown, wildcats have a predilection for the scent “Calvin Klein Obsession for Men”.  To that effect the lodge has purchased a bottle of said perfume to spray in front of the cameras with a view of holding the cats attention for long enough that we get some photos with her head on her shoulders.

M2E39L137-136R408B319         M2E39L137-137R408B319         M2E44L157-157R410B311

M2E1L0-0R350B300         M2E34L106-106R398B311         M2E1L0-0R350B300

M2E1L0-0R350B300         M2E45L35-35R350B300         M2E42L155-155R411B309

Yellow Peril

The rain combined with constant warmth has resulted in a lot of the fungi producing fruiting bodies, mushrooms and toadstools.  Some of the fungal fruiting bodies are so obscure that they resemble something more alien in form than most people are used to seeing  Many times people don’t even know it is a fungus they are looking at.  Then, of course, there are the more familiar parasol-shaped mushrooms that occur in all sizes and colors, many of which are diagnostic features in helping identify the specimen to species level.

Leucocoprinus bernbaunii.

Growing saprophytically on the rotting wood of dead trees it is not uncommon to see the bright yellow granular caps of Leucocoprinus birnbaunii.  It is found throughout tropical regions as well as growing in glasshouses in more temperate areas.  It is quite surprising how many fungi know few boundaries and have a global distribution.  Despite its resemblance to a marzipan cake decoration it is inedible and regarded by some authorities as deadly poisonous.  As with many fungi it is always best to look and not touch.

Leucocoprinus bernbaunii

Banana Song

The rains have continued to fall so the frogs have continued to call.  Last week I posted a photo of a Small-headed Frog, (Dendropsophus micracephalus).  Located in the same area amongst the Water Hyacinth and Water Lettuce as well as all around the back of the pond is almost identical looking Banana Frog, (Dendropsophus ebreccatus).  Morphologically the frogs can be distinguished with close scrutiny.  The Small-headed Frog has a line running along the uppersides of the body while the Banana Frog has a small yellow patch under the eye.  But it is when they are calling that the males can be readily discerned.  The Small-headed Frog has a high pitched “eek eek eek eek” call while the male Banana Frog is more of a longer “neeurk”.

Banana Frog

Both species utilize the same areas to lay their eggs on the upper leaf surfaces of plants floating on the water.  They are small flat masses of leaves numbering about 50 eggs.  The eggs develop until about a week, the egg mass liquidizes and the tadpoles wriggle off into the water to complete their developement.

Philip is a biologist, writer and photographer as well as the onsite naturalist guide at Bosque del Cabo Rainforest lodge on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

www.bosquedelcabo.com

Photo Feature 

Crabby Behaviour

Sometimes you witness aberrant animal behavior that allow you to identify that something outside of the norm in happening.  I was passing the patch of Lantana camara near the Bosque pond one day and was idly watching the butterflies that had been summoned by the sun.  I noticed a butterfly that was resting on a flowerhead but at a strange angle and with no wing movement.  Most of the other butterflies were warmed by the solar radiation and were flitting from one flower to the next, stopping only briefly to imbibe some of the nectar.  This individual, a White-banded Fatima, (Anartia fatima), was not.  I knew fron experience what was likely to have happened and luckily had the camera with me so took a closer look.

Thomisidae sp

Sure enough my thoughts were confirmed, a beautiful Crab Spider was positioned at the top of the flower head, its chelicerae, (fangs), buried in the body of the butterfly which must have succumbed to the quick acting venom.  Crab-spiders are placed in the arachnid family: Thomisidae and they are ambush predators that also the masters of disguise.  This one had a body colored in a fashion to match exactly the flower in which it was lurking, bright yellow.  Butterfly vision allows them to see color and movement but they don’t readily determine image.  This unfortunate individual would not have know what hit it until too late.

Crab Spider

The Crab Spider unlike its butterfly prey which has large compound eyes has small simple eyes that only produce sharp vision up close but can discern movement from some distance away.  They don’t build webs but use a silken line to secure them to the blooming flower.  Female Crab Spiders can change their color to a certain degree to match them to the flower.  They sit and wait with large strong front legs outstretched until the prey alights then grab it, hold it tight and inject the venom. The liquefied juices of the prey are sucked out of the puncture wounds.  They attain their name of Crab Spider due to their uncanny ability to walk sideways.

Anartia fatima

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming book:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

Temperature and Rainfall

Average Daily Rainfall 0.38 ins.  Total Weekly Rainfall 2.63 ins

Average Daily Rainfall 10.4 mm.  Total Weekly Rainfall 82.8 mm

Highest Daily Temp 88°F.  Lowest Daily Temp 74°F.

Highest Daily Temp 31.1°C.  Lowest Daily Temp 23.2°C.

Species List for the Week

Mammals

  • Mantled Howler Monkey
  • Spider Monkey
  • Squirrel Monkey
  • White-faced Capuchin Monkey
  • Nine-banded Armadillo
  • Tamandua
  • Common Tent-making Bat
  • Western Red Bat
  • Northern Raccoon
  • White-nosed Coati
  • Agouti
  • Paca
  • Red-tailed Squirrel
  • Underwood’s Pocket Gopher
  • Collared Peccary
  • White-lipped Peccary

Birds

  • Mealy Amazon
  • Orange-chinned Parakeets
  • Red-lored Amazon
  • Scarlet Macaw
  • Gray-necked WoodRail
  • Great Curassow
  • Crested Caracara
  • Yellow-headed Caracara
  • Rufus Piha
  • Black-hooded Antshrike
  • Chestnut-backed Antbird
  • Short-billed Pigeon
  • Red-Capped Manakin
  • Chestnut-mandibled Toucan
  • Bright-rumped Atilla
  • Golden-crowned Spadebill
  • Great Kiskadee
  • Great Tinamou
  • Black-throated Trogon
  • Black Vulture
  • Turkey Vulture

Reptiles

  • Barred Ameiva
  • Cat-eyed Snake
  • Central American Smooth Gecko
  • Central American Whiptail
  • Common Anolis
  • Common Basilisk
  • Clawless Gecko
  • Four-lined Ameiva
  • Green Iguana
  • Golfo Dulce Anolis
  • Litter Skink
  • Mediterranean House Gecko
  • Mussarana
  • Pentaprion Anolis

Amphibians

  • Banana Frog
  • Black and Green Poison Arrow Frog
  • Golfo Dulce Poison Arrow Frog
  • Fitzinger’s Rain Frog
  • Gladiator Frog
  • Masked Smilisca
  • Marine Toad
  • Milky Frog
  • Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Savage’s Thin-fingered Frog
  • Small-headed Frog

Butterflies

  • Anartia Fatima
  • Anartia jatrophae
  • Colobura dirce
  • Dryas iulia
  • Glutophrissa drusilla
  • Heliconius erato
  • Heliconius hecale
  • Heliconius ismenius
  • Heliconius sapho
  • Hermeuptychia hermes
  • Mesosemia zonalis
  • Morpho cypris
  • Morpho helenor
  • Morpho menelaus
  • Parides erithalion
  • Phiaethria dido
  • Phoebis sennae

Plants

  • Alamandra  cathartica Flowering
  • Alpinia purpurata Flowering
  • Apeiba tibourbou Fruiting
  • Arachis pintoi Flowering
  • Arundina graminifolia Flowering
  • Attalea rostrata Fruiting
  • Bauhinia variegata Flowering
  • Brosimum utile Fruiting
  • Caryocar costaricense Flowering
  • Cascabella thevetia Flowering and Fruiting
  • Citrus spp  Fruiting
  • Clusia rosea Flowering and Fruiting
  • Clusia vallerii Fruiting
  • Cocos nucifera Flowering and Fruiting
  • Crestentia alata flowering and Fruiting
  • Costus speciosus Flowering
  • Couroupita guianensis Flowering and Fruiting
  • Dypsis lutescens Flowering and Fruiting
  • Etlingera elatior Flowering
  • Ficus citrifolia Fruiting
  • Ficus insipida Fruiting
  • Heliconia chartacea Flowering
  • Heliconia latispatha Flowering
  • Heliconia pogonantha Flowering
  • Heliconia psittacorum Flowering
  • Heliconia rostrata Flowering
  • Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Flowering
  • Hymenaea coubaril Fruiting
  • Hymenocallis littoralis Flowering
  • Inga spp Fruiting
  • Ixora coccinea Flowering
  • Lantana camara Flowering and Flowering
  • Lagerstroemia speciosa Fruiting
  • Morinda citrifolia Fruiting
  • Musa acuminate Flowering and Fruiting
  • Nephelium lappaceum Fruiting
  • Pachira quinata Flowering
  • Piper auritum Flowering and Fruiting
  • Piper nigrum Fruiting
  • Piper umbellatum Flowering and Fruiting
  • Pleiostachya pruinosa Flowering
  • Plumeria rubra Flowering
  • Psychotria sp Fruiting
  • Stachytarpheta frantzii Flowering
  • Zammia sp Flowering

 

 

The Trees Have Eyes   2 comments


Felipe del Bosque Blog August 5th 2013

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Don’t Be Fooled

This week has been something of a mixed bag as far as the weather goes.  We are well into the wet season now and as might be expected it has been raining a lot.  The earlier part of the week was quite pleasant with clear skies, bright sunny days and star filled cloudless skies at night.  It seemed as if we had entered that period known locally as the veranillo or little summer.  At this time of year there is a two week period where the rain stops and it dries up.  It is nice time to visit the Pacific coast of Costa Rica as there are not so many visitors as in the main holiday periods, the weather is conducive to exploration and all the vegetation is lush and green.  If this was the veranillo then it was short-lived because the rain came back.  The latter part of the week has experienced the normal weather pattern for this time of year with days overcast and the rain starting early evening then continuing through the night into the early morning.   Those are perfect conditions for wildlife watching and photography, not too hot to go out and no bright contrasting shadows.

Further into the week the rain became more persistent.  Sometimes it rained all day but with no more than a gentle drizzle followed by more heavy precipitation overnight.  Each day is different.  Some days the sun shines, some it doesn’t but whatever the weather, this is a rainforest, everything is adapted to living in constantly rainy conditions and so at least some wildlife of one sort or another should be guaranteed.

The latter part of the week dispelled the notion that we might still be in the veranillo.  There have been some violent thunderstorms producing spectacular light shows in the sky accompanied with a moderate amount of rain.  The good news is that the creeks are running with a substantial flow rate now after a period of being very dry.

Caught In The Act

It has been another eventful week as far as animal sightings go.  On several separate occasions a Puma, (Puma concolor), and Ocelot, (Leopardus pardalis), have been recorded by the trail cameras that have been set up on the Titi Trail.  This is a trail running through secondary growth.  When the ground is wet, which it tends to be for 7 months of the year, you can see quite readily the tracks of any passing animals.  Most tracks are distinctive enough to allow identification of the creature leaving them.

One day tracks from huge male Puma were found on the approach to the suspension bridge.  The cat then appears to have walked over the bridge as the tracks were readily visible in the mud straight off the lodge side of the bridge and were heading in the direction of the restaurant.  The Spider Monkeys, (Ateles geoffroyi), were most certainly aware of the predators presence as they gave off their loud and distinctive alarm call for a long time.  The tracks then left the main trail and headed off through the forest to the lookout point over the Gulf.  Finally they turned and headed down the Creek Trail to the platform of the zip-line and disappeared into the forest.  We know that the female Puma is around so this may have been a transient male searching for a mate.

Puma Print

Bosque has recently started a project whereby the animals can be seen and photographed without anyone needing to be present.  We have set up 2 trail cameras near both the entrance and exit to the Titi Trail.  The cameras have been placed looking down the trail so that if anything is either walking towards or away from the camera we should get a good 30 seconds of footage.  The cameras are motion sensitive and detect infra red.  They use passive infra red LEDs to illuminate the subject without producing any visible light or flash.

Over the past month the cameras have produced some very good photos and video of what is around and also when it is around and what it is doing.  The surprising discovery is just how often the Collared Peccaries, (Tayassu tajacu), are walking the trails.  There seem to be large herds that come back and forth.  It would appear at first that they don’t have a large territory but it may well be there are several distinct herds and unless they are somehow marked in a fashion that would allow their identity to be easy verified then we shall just have to enjoy the sight of them walking by.

One of the cameras has a resident Agouti, (Dasyprocta punctata), that seems to come out and mark the trail every hour so we can expect to get to see an endless number of videos featuring that particular individual.  But he could be living a charmed existence.  We have viewed several videos featuring Ocelots, both day and night, and we know there is a female Puma in the area, she just hasn’t been captured on our cameras yet.  She has, however, featured in a cameo role on a trail camera put up not too far from our own by a young boy from England who was staying at the lodge last weekend.

There have been a number of other animals passing by in greater or lesser numbers: White-nosed Coatis, (Nassua narica), White-lipped Peccary, (Tayassu pecari), Tamanduas, (Tamandua mexicana), Nine-banded Armadillos, (Dasypus novemcinctus), Red-tailed Squirrels, (Sciurus granatensis), Tayras, (Eira barbara), Pacas, (Agouti paca), Common Opossum, (Didelphis marsupialis), Striped Hog-nosed Skunk, (Conepatus semistriatus),  Great  Curassow, (Crax rubra), Great Tinamou, (Tinamus major).  But let’s not forget that this is just the activity on the ground in the vicinity of the cameras, there is also a whole load of other activity going on up and above this level in the trees.

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Quadruple Vision

It doesn’t take long once the sun has set to go out and find a great many creatures that have been hiding during the day.  My nightly excursions to the pond this week have been rewarded with sightings of Northern Raccoons, (Procyon lotor), Common Opossums and Nine-banded Armadillos.  While looking at these nocturnal mammals your flashlight may catch the diamond sparkles being reflected from the grass, from the plants, from the tree trunks, everywhere in fact.  Follow the sparkles in and you will be amazed to find it is your light being reflected back at you from the eyes of spiders.  Not only might that revelation be somewhat astounding but also the size of the spiders themselves which may be tiny.  Depending upon the angle at which you catch it, the eyeshine may be silver, blue, green or orange but with the spiders always a sparkle.

Have a care though because not all of the spiders are tiny.  Once the sun sets below the horizon, emerging from safe daytime refuges come the Wandering Spiders, (Cupiennius spp) to set up their positions on the leaf tops or stems.  The Wandering Spiders don’t build webs, they are ambush predators.  They sit and wait.  The legs are covered  in hairs of differing types each of which performs a specific function.  There are tactile hairs which are stiff and are sensitive to touch.  A similar hair, the trichobothrium is super sensitive to the slightest touch as well as eddies in air currents.  There are chemosensory hairs that detect changes is the molecular environment around them.  There are slit-like structures called sensillae near the joints of the legs.  These detect vibration and mechanical movement of the substrate.

Cupiennius_sp

Even though the spider has eight eyes they are not necessarily used for hunting but all that other highly receptive sensory apparatus ensures the spider knows whether there is predator or prey close by.  If it is the latter then it is generally goodbye.  I have seen the Wandering Spiders jump and take moths from the air, I have seen then jump on any small passing invertebrate and I have even seen then eating the Red-eyed Green Tree Frogs, (Agalychnis callidryas), at the pond.

Wandering Spiders are not dangerous, they will not kill you but they will give a nasty little ulcerated bite.  And they can jump so don’t get too close.  But if you leave them alone they won’t bother you.

Small Head and bulging Red Eyes.

The rains always bring out the frogs.  June, July and August is the best time to see frogs at Bosque as it is the main breeding season for many of the species to be found on the grounds.  Year by year there is a flux not only in the species to be found but also in the numbers of those species.  The Red-eyed Green Tree Frogs are present all year, every year but in much greater numbers in the wet season when their distinctive “chuck chuck” calls can be heard everywhere around the pond.  Their egg masses can be seen throughout the year too hanging as they do from the underside of leaves overhanging the water where the diligent female has placed them.

Over the past week there have been male Red-eyed Green Tree Frogs calling from every level of vegetation immediately next to or in the close vicinity of the pond.  The males set up their territories once the sun has set and then call to attract a mate.  The female which is much bigger than the male selects a partner for the evening depending on the quality of his call, the deeper the better.  The frogs pair up and visit the pond about 3 times over the course of the evening.  Each time the female absorbs a lot of water through her skin, fills her bladder and then they amplected couple make their way to a leaf overhanging the water.  The female lays a group of about fifty eggs which the male sitting on her back fertilizes as she expels them.

Agalychnis_callidryas

The eggs hang over the water for about a week until the tadpoles have developed enough to wriggle free and drop into the water where they have to complete the aquatic stage before metamorphose into froglets which leave the water and disappear into the vegetation before emerging some time later as adults.

The Small-headed Frog, (Dendropsophus microcephala), on the other hand may or may not be present each year.  Sometimes there are just one or two calling over the course of a season, last year there were none.  This year on the other hand they have arrived in huge numbers.  I was never sure in the years gone by whether they were being outcompeted by the more commonly seen and heard Banana Frog, (Dendropsophus ebraccatus), which are always here in reasonably large numbers.  This year though they haven’t appeared in such profusion as in years past.  I think it is time to start the frog counts again.

Dendropsophus_microcephalus

Philip is a biologist, writer and photographer as well as the onsite naturalist guide at Bosque del Cabo Rainforest lodge on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

www.bosquedelcabo.com

Photo Feature 

Try Again

Several months ago there was a White-necked Jacobin Hummingbird, (Florisuga mellivora), that had nested right by the path on the Zapatero Trail.  The nest contained 2 eggs but one day both the eggs had disappeared and despite the fact the nest was intact the female was nowhere to be seen.  Then, a couple of weeks ago on a different part of the Zapatero Trail, there appeared another nest looking exactly the same and of the same species.  Although the two nest sites seemed somewhat removed, when looking at the map, the trail curves round at 180º so the second nest in actual fact lay very close to but just uphill of the first.  My guess would be that it is the same female.  She might have chosen a different location but not too far away based on the failure of the prior brood.

Florisuga_mellivora

Every day as I walked the Zapatero Trail the female White-necked Jacobin would sit tight until I approached to passing.  She would then take off and wait for me to go further down the trail before returning to the nest.  As the chick grew progressively larger the female would spend less time on the nest.  The chick now filled the nest and one day as I got closer I could see the nest was empty so I hope on this occasion the chick had managed to take to the air and fly off.

Florisuga_mellivora

There is a low success rate for breeding birds.  The forest is full of predators and parasites.  Certainly around the lodge if there is a nest containing either eggs or chicks it doesn’t take long for an individual of the species Tropical Bird-eating Snake, (Pseustes poecilonotus), to pay visit.  These snakes can reach well over 6 feet in length so can eat birds of most sizes here.  Quite often the birds have to raise 2 or 3 clutches a year to have 1 successful set of fledglings.

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming book:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

Temperature and Rainfall

Average Daily Rainfall 0.67 ins.  Total Weekly Rainfall 4.70 ins

Average Daily Rainfall 16.8 mm.  Total Weekly Rainfall 117.9 mm

Highest Daily Temp 84°F.  Lowest Daily Temp 74°F.

Highest Daily Temp 28.8°C.  Lowest Daily Temp 23.3°C.

Species List for the Week

Mammals

  • Mantled Howler Monkey
  • Spider Monkey
  • White-faced Capuchin Monkey
  • Nine-banded Armadillo
  • Common Opossum
  • Common Tent-making Bat
  • Western Red Bat
  • Northern Raccoon
  • White-nosed Coati
  • Agouti
  • Red-tailed Squirrel
  • Collared Peccary

Birds

  • Mealy Amazon
  • Orange-chinned Parakeet
  • Red-lored Amazon
  • Scarlet Macaw
  • Great Curassow
  • Laughing Falcon
  • Pale-billed Woodpecker
  • Black-hooded Antshrike
  • Chestnut-backed Antbird
  • Short-billed Pigeon
  • Red-capped Manakin
  • Chestnut-mandibled Toucan
  • Golden-crowned Spadebill
  • Great Tinamou
  • Little Tinamou
  • Black-throated Trogon
  • Black Vulture
  • Turkey Vulture

Reptiles

  • Barred Ameiva
  • Cat-eyed Snake
  • Central American Smooth Gecko
  • Central American Whiptail
  • Common Anolis
  • Common Basilisk
  • Clawless Gecko
  • Four-lined Ameiva
  • Golfo Dulce Anolis
  • Green Iguana
  • Litter Skink
  • Mediterranean House Gecko

Amphibians

  • Banana Frog
  • Black and Green Poison Arrow Frog
  • Fitzinger’s Rain Frog
  • Golfo Dulce Poison Arrow Frog
  • Marine Toad
  • Milky Frog
  • Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Rough-skinned Dirt Frog
  • Savage’s Thin-fingered Frog
  • Small-headed Frog
  • Tink Frog

Butterflies 

  • Anartia Fatima
  • Anartia jatrophae
  • Colobura dirce
  • Dryas iulia
  • Heliconius erato
  • Heliconius ismenius
  • Heliconius sapho
  • Hermeuptychia hermes
  • Mesosemia zonalis
  • Morpho cypris
  • Morpho menelaus
  • Philaethria dido
  • Phoebis sennae
  • Pierella luna

Plants

  • Alamandra  cathartica Flowering
  • Alpinia purpurata Flowering
  • Apeiba tibourbou Fruiting
  • Arachis pintoi Flowering
  • Arundina graminifolia Flowering
  • Attalea rostrata Fruiting
  • Bauhinia variegata Flowering
  • Cascabella thevetia Flowering and Fruiting
  • Citrus spp  Fruiting
  • Clusia vallerii Fruiting
  • Cocos nucifera Flowering and Fruiting
  • Crestentia alata flowering and Fruiting
  • Costus speciosus Flowering
  • Dypsis lutescens Flowering and Fruiting
  • Etlingera elatior Flowering
  • Ficus insipida Fruiting
  • Heliconia chartacea Flowering
  • Heliconia latispatha Flowering
  • Heliconia pogonantha Flowering
  • Heliconia psittacorum Flowering
  • Heliconia rostrata Flowering
  • Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Flowering
  • Hymenaea coubaril Fruiting
  • Hymenocallis littoralis Flowering
  • Ixora coccinea Flowering
  • Lantana camara Flowering and Flowering
  • Lagerstroemia speciosa Fruiting
  • Morinda citrifolia Fruiting
  • Musa acuminate Flowering and Fruiting
  • Nephelium lappaceum Fruiting
  • Pachira quinata Flowering
  • Piper auritum Flowering and Fruiting
  • Piper nigrum Fruiting
  • Piper umbellatum Flowering and Fruiting
  • Pleiostachya pruinosa Flowering
  • Plumeria rubra Flowering
  • Stachytarpheta frantzii Flowering
  • Zammia sp Flowering

 

 

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