Archive for the ‘Paper Wasps’ Tag

CUCKOO WASPS:  A DAZZLING PARASITE   2 comments


Wildlife, nature, fauna and flora of Costa Rica.

Now the weather has taken a significant change.  The rains that are expected to fall in September have started in earnest.  The rain is now falling all day and on most days.  This is good news for the frogs and this year the breeding continues on without a drop in intensity.  Every night there are large numbers of calling males.  The females are obviously responding because every morning there are lots of freshly spawned eggs.

After 17 years of data collection for my study, “Using amphibian and butterfly populations as a measure of environmental health”, I have decided to call it a day and now have to sit down and analyze the data.  Essentially I have been collecting data on population dynamics of butterflies and amphibians as well as recording daily weather conditions.  I look at changes in butterfly populations measured against temperature and amphibian populations measured against precipitation.  There are a great many other variables to be taken into consideration but watch this space for news of what the data might be showing us.

Butterflies in the Sun

Due to the constant rain and the trails running like streams, I have not been able to spend as much time outside as I would normally wish.  However, on the one day I did manage to get out and take some photographs I was rewarded with a mixed bag of goodies of which only one was new to me.

One morning the sun was shining and the butterflies were taking advantage of its warming rays.  The Lantana camara bushes are always a big nectar draw for the butterflies and this day proved to be no different.  Although there were nowhere near the number of species found during drier periods of the year there were enough to try and take a few shots.

One very small but distinctive butterfly that I have a particular liking for, (I don’t know why), is the Tropical Checkered Skipper, (Pyrgus oileus).  It is a fairly common skipper with a wide geographical distribution from southern North America and through into Costa Rica.  At a distance the black and white checkered pattern make it stand out against the green of the grass where it is normally found flying close to the ground.  When seen close up the wings and body are covered in a grey/blue fur.  The females tend to be a darker overall color.  The caterpillars feed on plants in the family: Malvaceae, of which there are several species growing in abundance locally.

Rainforests. Butterflies. Costa Rica. Veridion Adventures. Hesperiidae. Pyrginae. Pyrgus oileus.

Tropical Checkered Skipper, (Pyrgus oileus)

They belong in the family: Hesperiidae and the subfamily: Pyrginae or Spreadwing Skippers due to their habit of basking with the wings wide open.  There are approximately 50 species in the genus: Pyrgus and they can be found throughout Europe, Asia, North, Central and South America.  You are more likely to find Tropical Checkered Skippers in open sunny locations which is where I found this one.

Feeding on the nectar of the same patch of Lantana was yet another Spreadwing Skipper but one which looked completely different to the Checkered Skipper.  This was a Long-tailed Skipper, (Urbanus proteus), notable for the two long tail-like extensions of the hind wings.  There are several species of Long-tailed Skippers in the immediate area but each one has distinctive markings to the wings.  The dorsal surface of the abdomen and the wings are covered in metallic green hairs.  Again it is a widespread species ranging from southern North America, down through Central America and into South America.  The larvae feed on leguminous vines of which there are many species growing locally.  In North America it is sometimes considered a pest as it feeds on commercially grown beans.

Rainforests. Butterflies. Costa Rica. Veridion Adventures. Hesperiidae. Pyrginae. Urbanus proteus

Long-tailed Skipper, (Urbanus proteus)

This individual can be seen using its proboscis to probe for and suck nectar from the Lantana blooms.  One of the changes I have documented over the past 17 years is the progressive increase in annual average temperatures. One of the impacts this may have on butterfly populations is with increasing temperatures there will be increasing evaporation of the nectar.  This in turn causes an exponential increase in nectar viscosity.  We could end up with a situation whereby if the temperature increases to the point where the nectar is too viscous for the butterflies to suck up, then they may well not be able to feed, bringing about starvation, death and a collapse in butterfly numbers.  This is one of many variables I have to take into consideration when looking at the fact that we have had a 35% decline in butterfly species over the past 17 years.

Cuckoo Wasps: A Dazzling Parasite

While watching the butterflies flit back and forth, only stopping momentarily to take a feed of nectar, I noticed a tiny metallic green insect, only about 10mm long.  It was on top of a leaf at eye level and not moving.  It was striking in that the green was very reflective, it looked like a piece of metallic foil.  I was looking at a Cuckoo Wasp.  I have only ever photographed one in the past so if this one did not move then here was a second opportunity beckoning.  I slowly lifted the camera and got the shot but as I moved my position for a head on photo it took to the air and disappeared.

Cuckoo wasps are solitary wasps of the order: Hymenoptera, which includes bees, wasps and ants amongst others.  They belong in the family: Chrysididae, after the Greek word Chrysis – golden vessel.  They are also known as Jewel Wasps and they certainly have a jewel-like quality to them.  The refraction of light produces the spectacular metallic coloration, similar to the iridescent blues of the Blue Morpho butterflies.  In this case it is the multi-layered waxy cuticle of the wasp’s exoskeleton that produces the refraction.  There are about 3,000 named species of Cuckoo Wasps and they are found in most parts of the planet.

Rainforest insects. Hymenoptera. Chrysididae. Cuckoo Wasp.

Dazzling parasite, Cuckoo Wasp, (Chrysididae sp)

The name Cuckoo Wasp refers to the fact that, depending on species, they are either parasitoids or kleptoparasites preying upon other wasps.  Like any parasite dealing with a dangerous host it has to have evolved behavioral methods that allow it to get in and get out without being discovered or be killed.  To that end it has a very sneaky strategy.

A female Cuckoo Wasp will case the joint she is about to infiltrate.  She watches and waits for a female Digger Wasp to begin making a burrow.  When the Digger Wasp starts to bring in paralyzed prey on which to lay her eggs, the Cuckoo Wasp either hangs onto the immobilized victim and will be dragged into the burrow, or she waits until the Digger Wasp has left on another foraging trip and she will stealthily slip into the burrow.  If caught in the act, all is not lost.  Some species of Cuckoo Wasp have a concave underside and can roll into a ball.  The sting of the enraged host will not penetrate the heavily pitted exoskeleton of this now globe-like emerald.  The host has to physically carry the Cuckoo in the nest out in its jaws where it will then sit and watch till it can strike again.

Having subverted the hosts defenses, the female Cuckoo Wasp lays its eggs.  Some species are kleptoparasites, once the egg hatches and the larva emerges it will kill and eat the host larva and then consumes the food the host female is providing for it.  It remains undetected by mimicking the chemical signature odor of the host.  Others wait for the host larva to grow and then kill and consume it before it pupates.  Then like its avian namesake, it is the Cuckoo that thrives within the nest of its unwitting host and eventually emerges as a new parasite.  They parasitize a wide variety of hosts from solitary wasps and bees, to sawflies and walking sticks.  Unlike many other wasps where the ovipositor is modified into a lethal sting, the Cuckoo Wasp has a modified ovipositor and reduced venom sac so has no potentially lethal means of attack or defense.

Who would of thought as I photographed this gorgeous glowing emerald insect that it would have such an insidious life history.

A Collection of Queens

Another wasp nest that I have been walking past over the past month or so has been not only gradually increasing in size but is now populated by more adult wasps tending it.  It is the nest of one of the Social Paper Wasps, (Polistes sp).  The original queen had created a few cells beneath a leaf in each of which she laid an egg.  The eggs hatched, the larvae she provided with a food of chewed up insects until they were large enough.  She then capped the cell of the now pupa and waited for it to emerge.  The new wasp is one of the original queen’s offspring and like their mother they are equally capable of mating and reproducing.

Rainforest insects. Paper Wasps. Hymenoptera. Vesperidae. Polistinae. Costa Rica. Veridion Adventures.

Female Paper Wasp, (Polistes sp), guarding her nest.

To begin with they help with the nest, building more cells, tending the larval siblings, foraging for food and helping the nest to increase in size.  The cells are constructed from masticated vegetative material.  Prey is caught and chewed up for the larvae to feed.  The sting is only used defensively.  They will attack any potential predator that approaches too close.  So, my approach was one of great stealth.  I took a few took a few exposures but the flash was beginning to antagonize them and one took flight and started buzzing around my head which was my cue to slowly back off and leave them to their business.

The other females usually have reduced ovarian systems but dominance of the original queen is not always assured.  Fights break out and a new queen can become established within the hierarchy taking over the major reproductive role.  When the male wasps emerge, they may stay on the nest for some time before leaving.

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

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Small Balls of Fire   Leave a comment


Felipe del Bosque Blog June 4th  2012

Flash & Crash

The week started bright and sunny but after a few days the heat built up, the hot moist air rose, condensed in the upper atmosphere and those thunderstorms so typical at this time of year arrived.  Here the storms pass overhead more often than not, bringing with them spectacular lightning shows, thunder that rattles all the buildings down to the foundations and of course the inevitable torrential rain.

The bosque creek still is running very low, but it won’t take too many of these downpours to fill it up.  The ground, which for the time being is soft and sticky, will soon become wet and cloying.

Dripping New Life

Now that it has been wet for a month or so, conditions that have encouraged the male amphibians to be out calling, the females having joined them and we are starting to see lots of eggs.  The Red-eyed Green Tree Frogs, (Agalychnis callidryas), have been laying their eggs in small masses under the leaves overhanging the pond.  The Smokey Jungle Frogs, (Leptodactylus savegei), are foam nesters and their distinctive egg containing frothy masses can be seen around the pond.  The smaller Banana Frogs, (Dendropsophus ebrecattus), lay their eggs on the vegetation floating on the pond surface.

All 3 of the above species have initially taken their eggs out of the water to develop away from aquatic predators.  With each, the eggs develop until about a week, then the larvae will drop into the water where they have to undergo a tadpole stage before metamorphosing into a terrestrial or arboreal frog.

The Leaf-cutter Ants have now been stimulated into 24 hour action on all of the trails.  During the dry season they normally work at night, away from the drying effects of the sun and high temperatures that could possibly desiccate the piece of leaf they are carrying over such long distances thereby rendering all that hard work to useless.  Now, with a change in the humidity it is possible to cut and carry all day and all night.

Stop and You’re Dead

Over the past week it has not just been the Leaf-cutter Ants making their presence obvious; the Army Ants have been out in force too.  Their unmistakable foraging columns can be seen traversing the forest floor, a living river of ants moving with unswerving purpose.

If you are lucky you may see the foraging front that the columns are serving.  This is a relentless forward marching line of ants up to 60 feet across and 10 feet or so in depth.  It is the phase in the recurring cycle of Army Ant activity where they move through the forest killing, dismembering and transporting any unfortunate small creature too slow to escape their advancing numbers.

You will be alerted to the presence of the murderous hymenopterans by the excited activity of so many birds; Antbirds, Antpittas, Ant Wrens, Ant Shrikes, Ant-tanagers, Ant Thrushes, Ant Vireos, woodpeckers, woodcreepers, tinamous and the ever present followers of the Army Ants, the Grey-headed Tanagers.  These birds are here, not to feed on the ants, but to take advantage of the easy meal afforded them by the frantic efforts of the insects to escape the jaws of the ravenous hordes.

There will be a hum in the air near the front of the seething black mass of ants; this is the sound of parasitic Phorid flies that are in the vicinity for the same reason as the birds.  As insects are flushed from their hiding spots, in go the flies, lay an egg on them and then retreat post haste.

The ants return with the mutilated remains of recently dead prey to a bivouac, a massive ball of ants that provide temporary accommodation for the colony by linking together their legs to construct a nest of living bodies.  This shelters the queen and the larvae while they feed and grow.  As soon as they pupate, the bivouac deconstructs and the ants then enter their nomadic phase, moving through the forest until they arrive at new killing fields to start the carnage once again.

All mammal life is as normal with many daily sightings of Howler, Spider, Capuchin and Squirrel Monkeys.  Solitary male White-nosed Coatis can commonly be seen around the grounds of the lodge while out in the forest, large groups of females in attendance of their large litters of offspring have been seen, particularly on the Titi Trail.  Agoutis too have been seen walking around with young ones, which have now left the shelter of the dens, in close proximity.

Philip is a biologist, writer and photographer as well as the onsite naturalist guide at Bosque del Cabo Rainforest lodge on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

www.bosquedelcabo.com

 Photo Feature

 Ball of Fire

Paper Wasp Nest         Paper Wasp Nest         Paper Wasp Nest

I you look under the leaves of many of the plants around the grounds you will see suspended structures that vary in shape from globular to cylindrical with various forms in between.  These are the nests of the paper wasps.

Paper Wasp Nest

The shape of the nest tends to be unique to the species of wasp making it.  The nests are made from carton which is chewed up plant material, normally wood.  Sometimes the wasps can be seen around the bar and restaurant area scraping away the surface layer of wooden rails with their mandibles.  They chew it into a pulp from which they make the paper that gives them their names.  They pulp is deposited layer upon layer to build the nest which houses the combs that constitute the brood chambers for the eggs and subsequently the developing larvae.  The nest may vary in color depending upon the source of the original construction material.  Some nests may be adorned with decorative features such as hanging flanges.

Polybia sp         Polybia sp         Polybia sp

Wasps are carnivores and feed on a wide variety of small arthropod prey.  The paper wasps generally belong to the genus Polybia.  Depending upon species they range in size from about 1.5 inches to .25 of an inch.  They are generally dark in color but banded with yellow.  They don’t use the sting to kill prey, which they do with the mandibles.  The sting is used for defensive purposes and to that effect contains chemical agents guaranteed to cause maximum pain.  They may be small but they are pugnacious and will defend the nest with vigor.   To that effect it is probably better to view them from a distance rather than close up.

Polybia sp

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming book:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

Temperature and Rainfall

Average Daily Rainfall 0.37 ins.  Total Weekly Rainfall 2.59 ins

Average Daily Rainfall 9.4 mm.  Total Weekly Rainfall 65.8 mm

Highest Daily Temp 90°F.  Lowest Daily Temp 75°F.

Highest Daily Temp 32.2°C.  Lowest Daily Temp 24.2°C.

 

Species List for the Week

Mammals

  • Howler Monkey
  • Spider Monkey
  • White-faced Monkey
  • White-nosed Coati
  • Common Opossum
  • Agouti
  • Red-tailed Squirrel

 

Birds

 

  • Orange-cheeked Parakeets
  • Scarlet Macaws
  • Red-lored Amazons
  • Crested Caracara
  • Pale-billed Woodpecker
  • Grey-necked Woodrail
  • Lineated Woodpecker
  • Chestnut-backed Antbird
  • Black-hooded Antshrike
  • Common Paureque
  • Short-billed Pigeon
  • White-tipped Dove
  • Long-billed Hermit
  • Rufus-tailed Hummingbird
  • Blue-crowned Manakin
  • Red-capped Manakin
  • Chestnut-mandibled Toucan
  • Blue-crowned Motmot
  • Long-tailed Woodcreeper
  • Banaquit
  • Cherrie’s Tanager
  • Golden-hooded Tanager
  • Green Honeycreeper
  • Red-legged Honeycreeper
  • Bright-rumped Atilla
  • Golden-crowned Spadebill
  • Great Kiskadee
  • Great Tinamou
  • House Wren
  • Black-throated Trogon
  • Masked Tityra
  • Black Vulture
  • Turkey Vulture

 

Reptiles

 

  • Central American Whiptail
  • Central American Smooth Gecko
  • Clawless Gecko
  • Common Basilisk
  • Five-lined Ameiva
  • Golfo Dulce Anolis
  • Mediterranean House Gecko
  • Norops limifrons
  • Northern Cat-eyed Snake
  • Salmon-bellied Racer
  • Tropical Bird-eating Snake

 

Amphibians

 

  • Banana Frog
  • Black and Green Poison Arrow Frog
  • Gladiator Frog
  • Golfo Dulce Poison Arrow Frog
  • Marine Toad
  • Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Smokey Jungle Frog

 

Butterflies

 

  • Anartia Fatima
  • Arawacus lincoides
  • Archaeoprepona demophon
  • Ascia monuste
  • Autochton neis
  • Battus belus
  • Caligo eurilochus
  • Cupido comyntas
  • Eueides lybia
  • Eurema albula
  • Glutophrissa Drusilla
  • Heliconius cydno
  • Heliconius erato
  • Heliconius hecale
  • Heliconius ismenius
  • Heliconius sapho
  • Heraclides cresphontes
  • Hermeuptychia hermes
  • Marpesia berania
  • Mechanitis polymnia
  • Morpho helenor
  • Morpho Menelaus
  • Pareuptychia occirhoe
  • Perophthalma lassus
  • Philaetria dido
  • Phoebis sennae
  • Siproeta stelenes
  • Taygetis andromeda
  • Turesis basta
  • Urbanus simplicius
  • Urbanus tanna

 

Plants

 

  • Alamandra  cathartica Flowering
  • Alpinia purpurata Flowering
  • Anthurium salvinii Flowering
  • Apeiba tibourbou Flowering and Fruiting
  • Arachis pintoi Flowering
  • Aristolochia Fruiting
  • Arundina graminifolia Flowering
  • Astrocaryum standelyarum Fruiting
  • Atrocarpus heterophyllus Fruiting
  • Averrhoa carambola Fruiting
  • Brassavola nodosa Flowering
  • Brownea macrophylla Flowering
  • Calathea lutea Flowering
  • Callistemon viminalis Flowering
  • Cascabella thevetia Flowering
  • Chamaedorea costaricana Fruiting
  • Cocos nucifera Fruiting
  • Crestentia alata flowering and Fruiting
  • Clusia rosea Fruiting
  • Clusia valerii Fruiting
  • Costus speciosus Flowering
  • Couroupita guianensis Flowering and Fruiting
  • Eichhornia crassipes Flowering
  • Ficus insipida Fruiting
  • Garcinia madruno Fruiting
  • Genipa Americana Flowering
  • Gustavia brachycarpa Flowering
  • Hedychium coronarium Flowering
  • Heliconia chartacea Flowering
  • Heliconia latispatha Flowering
  • Heliconia pogonantha Flowering
  • Heliconia psittacorum Flowering
  • Heliconia rostrata Flowering
  • Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Flowering
  • Hymenaea coubaril Fruiting
  • Lacmellea panamensis Fruiting
  • Lantana camara Flowering
  • Lagerstroemia speciosa Flowering
  • Mangifera indica Fruiting
  • Miconia argentia Flowering
  • Morinda citrifolia Fruiting
  • Musa acuminate Fruiting
  • Naucleopsis ulei Fruiting
  • Pandanus tectonus Fruiting
  • Passiflora vitifolia Fruiting
  • Piper auritum Flowering and Fruiting
  • Piper umbellatum Flowering and Fruiting
  • Plumeria rubra Flowering
  • Psidium guajava Fruiting
  • Spathiphylum freidrichsthalii Flowering
  • Symphonia globulifera Fruiting
  • Terminalia catappa Flowering
  • Virola guatemalensis Fruiting
  • Virola koschnyi Fruiting
  • Vochysia ferruginea Fruiting

 

 

Bosque del Cabo April 2011 Nature Review   1 comment


Felipe del Bosque Blog April 2011 Review

The high temperatures experienced in February and March continued into April.  This year the rains came a little earlier than would normally be expected. On one or two occasions we had torrential thunderstorms occurring overnight this month.  The heavy rain caused some very large trees to fall.  One large Monkey Comb tree fell not too far from the suspension bridge.  Even though the rain was lashing down so heavily it was hard to hear anything outside your immediate vicinity, everyone standing in the bar heard that particular crash.

In response to the first rains for 4 months, the amphibians were stimulated into action.  Huge breeding aggregations of Milky Frogs, (Trachycephalus venulosus),  filled the ponds with a choral cacophony of amorous males, each calling for a mate with such voluminous gusto, that their collective sound could quite easily be heard by guests taking their evening meal in the lodge restaurant.

Trachycephalus venulosus

Trachycephalus venulosus

Although the Milky Frogs were the most numerous and vociferous of the pond inhabitants, there were other frogs too vying with them for some breeding space.  We had our first sightings for the impending wet season of the Banana Frogs, (Dendropsophus ebreccatus) and the Masked Smilisca, (Smilisca phaeota).

Dendropsophus ebraccatus

Smilisca phaeota

There are many orchids around the grounds of Bosque, unfortunately most of them growing up at canopy level, but there is one species which grows closer to the ground.  Lady of the Night, (Brassavola nodosa), can be found growing in clumps on several trees close to the restaurant.  Once or twice a year it produces long white trumpet shaped flowers that give off a sweet perfume once the sun has set.  The scent attracts in night flying hawk moths with long proboscises that can be inserted into the deep into the flower searching for the sugary nectar.

Brassovola nodosa

In comparison, one of the trees on which we find the orchid growing is the Calabash Tree, (Cresentia alata), which flowers and fruits all year round.  Also in contrast to the orchid, the Calabash is a bat pollinated tree and consequently has large pale colored, night flowering blossoms that emits the bat attracting scent of sweaty cheese.

Cresentia alata

Paper Wasps can be identified to species level by the form the wasp’s nest takes.  In general wasps in the genus Polistes have open nests while those in the genus Polybia have enclosed nests.  This nest I found under a leaf with only one female in attendance, probably the dominant reproductive female whose close relatives and nest mates may have been away foraging for food.  You can see eggs and larvae in the open cells while one closed cell contains a pupa.

Paper Wasp

Over the course of the year the numbers of butterflies fluctuates greatly.  Some butterfly species you expect to see almost every day of the butterfly season but others you only see once or twice.  It may well be that they exist in small numbers or they may be secretive or they may inhabit areas such as the canopy where it is difficult to record them without resorting to bait trapping.   Even that may not work as not all butterflies are attracted to the bait.  This particular species, (Callicore lyca), of the Biblidinae subfamily I see only on one or two occasions a year.  This individual was on the Titi Trail and I could never get close to it, the image being captured from some distance using a 100mm macro lens.

Callicore lyra

That same lens was used to capture this White Hawk, (Leucopternis albicollis), which landed above my head in one the open garden areas.  White Hawks can generally be found in the company of moving troops of monkeys.  They have no interest in the monkeys themselves, it is the insect life that the monkeys scatter as they move through the vegetation that make an easily picked off meal for this beautiful raptor.

Leucopternis albicollis

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming books:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

The Small World of Bosque del Cabo

The Colors of Bosque del Cabo

A Children’s Guide to Bosque del Cabo Rainforest Lodge

Temperature and Rainfall

Average M Temp High 94°F.  Average Daily Temp Low 74°F.

Average Daily Rainfall 0.04 ins.  Total Monthly Rainfall 1.28 ins

Average Daily Temp High 34.3°C.  Average Daily Temp Low 23.0°C.

Average Daily Rainfall 1.0 mm.  Total Monthly Rainfall 32.5 mm

 

Bosque del Cabo March 2011 Nature Review   Leave a comment


Felipe del Bosque Blog March 2011 Review

March continues as February left off with very low rainfall, if any at all and with high temperatures.  This distinct dry period results in the classification of the forests of Bosque as tropical season forest rather than strictly tropical wet forest.  Even though the temperatures may occasionally hit the 100’s Fahrenheit they never get to be those blistering Mediterranean temperatures.

The forest floor has started to crack with a network of daily ever widening fissures.  The vegetation is starting to take on the tired look of yellows and browns with the edges of leaves starting to look disheveled.  Even though the air feels dry, the relative humidity will still remain at 60 – 70%.

Those trees that started flowering in December will by now be producing fruit.  Not far from the Bosque restaurant are some spectacular Guanacaste trees, (Enterolobium cyclocarpum).  This is the national tree of Costa Rica.  The fruits have the distinct look of a hard crusty ear.  It takes up to a year for the fruit to be produced after flowering has ceased.  The Latin name roughly equates to circular fruit shaped like the small intestine.  The seeds will remain dormant within the tough outer coating until such time as it is breached and they can germinate.

Enterolobium cyclocarpum

Not too far from the Guanacaste trees is a large spreading but low crowned Cashew tree, (Anacardium occidentale).  In March the tree was heavy with fruit but you would be ill-advised to just help yourself.  The shell of the nut contains a cocktail of chemicals which if handled can prove to be a very unpleasant experience; anacardic acids similar to those found in Poison Ivy and equally as effective as a nasty skin irritant as well as phenolic resins which too produce profound allergenic reactions.  It is best just to leave the nuts on the tree and eat your cashews from packets.

Anacardium occidentale

Reptiles and amphibians featured prominently this March.  Not too far into a Primary Forest Tour with a group of clients I noticed a Glass Frog, (Espadarana prosoblepon), tucked up on the top of a leaf.  I guessed it wouldn’t become active again until the sun had set so providing me with the opportunity to return in the afternoon and get some pictures.  Most of the amphibian life we have at Bosque can be seen with little effort around the pond or on the forest floor.  The Glass Frogs prefer running water and you need to spend more time around the creek that runs through Bosque in order to find them.  This one, for whatever reason was away from any source of water.  It was still there when I returned later in the day, so I got the shots I wanted.  They are called Glass Frogs because of the transparent nature of their skin which allows you to see the bones and viscera within.

Espadarana prosoblepon      Espadarana prosoblepon      Espadarana prosoblepon

Espadarana prosoblepon

I found two the larger species of Anolis lizard not far from my cabin, the Lichen Anole, (Norops pentaprion) and the Pug-nosed Anole, (Norops capito).  The short stubby nose of the Pug-nosed Anole gives it the name.  Both species are frequently seen on forest walks.

Norops pentaprion

Norops capito

The high air temperatures contributed to an early hatch of Green Iguanas, (Iguana iguana).  Several nests had hatched at once within the vicinity of the restaurant so you didn’t have to go too far to find them.  The large adults are rarely seen as they spend most of their time at the tops of the trees.

Iguana iguana

The Parrot Snake, (Ahaetulla leptophis), is a lithe and graceful hunter of lizard, frogs and frog’s eggs.  It is a diurnal snake and is often found around water.  It has those two huge, beautiful, forward facing eyes that may allow for some depth perception when visibly hunting its prey. This individual was found around the lodge swimming pool.  Amongst the branches of a bush they are hard to spot, and even more difficult to focus upon once that fluid, serpentine body starts to glide through the vegetation.

Ahaetulla leptophis      Ahaetulla leptophis      Ahaetulla leptophis

Ahaetulla leptophis

The Litter Snake, (Rhadinea decorata), on the other hand is a terrestrial snake that spends a lot of time burrowing under leaf litter on the forest floor.  The shape of the head, with the slightly upturned snout facilitates an easier subsurface passage as it hunts for litter organisms on which to feed.

Rhadinea decorata      Rhadinea decorata      Rhadinea decorata

Rhadinea decorata

Every building at Bosque is probably going to provide a home for at least one of the largest geckoes we have here, the Central American Smooth Gecko, (Thecadactyla rapicauda).  People are quite often alarmed to find one behind a painting or mask decorating a cabin wall.  They are totally harmless and should even be welcomed as a roommate as they are voracious insect feeders.

Thecadactylis rapicauda

To bring the March review to a close, here is the usual collection of arthropods.  Of the many species of Longwing butterflies that can be found on the grounds of Bosque, most of them are flying over the full 12 month period, obviously not the same individuals but the species.  One species though is on the wing for only a short period maybe with 2 separate generations, Laparus doris.  For whatever reason, this was doris’s year.  The time period had not changed from normal but the number of individuals was greatly increased.  This one species has 3 different color forms, red, blue and green, all of which can often be seen flying together.

Laparus doris

My research at Bosque involves the daily monitoring of butterflies and amphibians.  You would have thought that opportunities to record new species would only occur very rarely after an 11 year study period.  But the butterflies do turn up new species, sometimes in numbers of 2 or 3 a week.  This Burning Firetip, (Yangura cosyra), was a new species record for the lodge back in March.

Yangura cosyra

In the evening, just as the last dying rays of the sun disappear and the sky darkens, small green eyes seem to emerge and take flight.  All is not what it seems, these are the bioluminescent spots on the thorax of the Fire beetles.  They have the ability to brighten and darken the spots at will.  When flying, the abdomen lights up with a bright orange bioluminescence.

Fire Beetle

There are beetles though that, once again, defy identification, despite their bizarre and one would think very distinctive body form.

Unidentified Beetle

Unidentified Beetle

Normally nesting in round paper nests, these Paper Wasps took up residence in a rotting tree stump instead.  Every time I went to get a photo, within a 2 or 3 minute period, groups of wasps would take to the air, closely investigating what they perceived as a potential threat to the nest.

Polybia sp

Katydids are always worth a photo whenever you find them.  This one was more of a broad leaf mimic.

Leaf-mimicking Katydid

Land crabs, (Gecarcinus quadratus), emerged in large numbers during the month of March.  Although they live some distance from water on the forest floor, they still breathe using gills.  This limits their behavior to inhabiting deep burrows during the day and emerging at night when the temperatures have decreased and the humidity rises.

Gecarcinus quadratus

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming books:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

The Small World of Bosque del Cabo

The Colors of Bosque del Cabo

A Children’s Guide to Bosque del Cabo Rainforest Lodge

Temperature and Rainfall

Average M Temp High 94°F.  Average Daily Temp Low 74°F.

Average Daily Rainfall 0.04 ins.  Total Monthly Rainfall 1.28 ins

Average Daily Temp High 34.3°C.  Average Daily Temp Low 23.0°C.

Average Daily Rainfall 1.0 mm.  Total Monthly Rainfall 32.5 mm

 

Call of a Fallen Star   Leave a comment


Felipe del Bosque Blog Sept 26th 2011

On the Verge

The weather continues as it has for months now with bright sunny days.  There is the ever present promise of rain in the air and on several nights over the past week we have been subject to torrential downpours.  One night the clouds delivered nearly 5 inches of rain between dusk and dawn.

Paper Stings

There are several structures around the grounds at the minute that made of paper but not manmade origami.  Just a stroll around the grounds taking a peak under some of the palm leaves will reveal small round gray papery globes with a small oval hole at the front.  They are the nests of various species of Paper Wasp.  It is best not to get too close to observe these pieces of natural artistic paper sculptures but rather admire their beauty from a distance.

Paper Wasp Nest

The wasps themselves can be anything up to 1.5 inches in length to just a few tenths of an inch.  The larger wasps such as the Drumming Wasps have large nests that attached to the underside of the tree branches.  The smaller ones, you are more likely to find closer to ground level.

Paper Wasp Nest

The wasps are carnivores and are usually out foraging for arthropod prey to feed the larvae.  Wasps of the genus Polistes make open nests usually hanging pendulously from a stalk-like structure.  These wasps belong to the genus Polybia which have their nests enclosed within the paper shell.

Fallen Star

As most of the life in a rainforest is at the top of the trees, for the most part your gaze is going to upwards.  But if you keep your eyes on the ground, there is another stratum of life at your feet.  Here some unusual things occasionally turn up but they aren’t always obvious.

Everyone is familiar with the usual form of mushrooms and toadstools, but they do take other forms.  The family Geastraceae or Earth Stars, produces some intriguing sessile fruiting bodies that split andpeel back like a banana skin producing the star shaped structure from which they obtain their name.  The globous spore sac has an opening at the top that that releases the spores into the air in small bursts when hit by a rain drop.

Earth Star Fungus

Earth stars can be found singly or in groups in temperate and tropical forests.  They are definitely worth a photograph if you should happen to come across them.

Philip is a biologist, writer and photographer as well as the onsite naturalist guide at Bosque del Cabo Rainforest lodge on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

www.bosquedelcabo.com

 

Photo Feature

It Is A Mystery What Katydid

Katydids are in the same insect order as grasshoppers and crickets.  They can at least be identified as distinct from grasshoppers by their long filamentous whip-like antennae.  Katydids are generally not hard to find around the grounds of Bosque, but you need a keen eye as many of them are master mimics of the vegetation amongst which they live.  The body can be shaped like leaves and have a subtle mix of dappled greens and grays to break up the outline.  Others look exactly like dead leaves, brown in color with veining and false fungal damage spots.  Yet others are bright green with lime green edging to resemble plant shoots.

      

Katydids tend to be heard rather than seen.  The evening air is filled with the calls of males searching for a mate.  Some of the calls are soft and whispering whereas others can be loud and course.  The name Katydid comes from the call of the male which is apparently how it sounds to some.  Orthopterists can identify katydids in the field by their calls.  If you would like to hear some visit:

http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/walker/buzz/a00samples.htm

Katydid Head

The katydids in these photographs I found close by each other near to my cabin.  Out came the camera and despite the fact every time I placed myself to get the shot, the katydid moved, I still managed to get some half decent images.

Katydid Head

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming book:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

Temperature and Rainfall

Average Daily Temp High 87°F.  Average Daily Temp Low 75°F.

Average Daily Rainfall 1.02 ins.  Total Weekly Rainfall 7.16 ins

Average Daily Temp High 30.6°C.  Average Daily Temp Low 23.5°C.

Average Daily Rainfall 23.2 mm.  Total Weekly Rainfall 162.1 mm

Species List for the Week

Mammals

  • Howler Monkey
  • Spider Monkey
  • White-faced Monkey
  • White-nosed Coati
  • Agouti
  • Red-tailed Squirrel
  • Nine-banded Armadillo
  • Common Opossum

Birds

  • Orange-chinned Parakeets
  • Red-lored Amazon
  • Great Currasow
  • Roadside Hawk
  • Yellow-headed Caracara
  • Pale-billed Woodpecker
  • Black-hooded Antshrike
  • Chestnut-backed Antbird
  • Common Paureque
  • Short-billed Pigeon
  • Rufus-tailed Hummingbird
  • Violet-crowned Woodnymph
  • Chestnut-mandibled Toucan
  • Fiery-billed Aracari
  • Streak-headed Woodcreeper
  • Wedge-billed Woodcreeper
  • Red-capped Manakin
  • Bananaquit
  • Cherrie’s Tanager
  • Gray-headed Tanager
  • Bright-rumped Atilla
  • Great Kiskadee
  • Southern Beardless Tyrannulet
  • Streaked Flycatcher
  • Tropical Kingbird
  • Mourning Warbler
  • Tennessee Warbler
  • White-shouldered Tanager
  • Yellow Warbler
  • House Wren
  • Riverside Wren
  • Masked Tityra
  • Black-thoated Trogon
  • Black Vulture
  • Turkey Vulture

Reptiles

  • Barred Ameiva
  • Four-lined Ameiva
  • Golfo Dulce Anolis
  • Pug-nosed Anolis
  • Clawless Gecko
  • Mediterranean House Gecko
  • Cat-eyed Snake
  • Parrot Snake
  • Salmon-bellied Racer

Amphibians

  • Marine Toad
  • Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Banana Frog
  • Small-headed Frog
  • Smokey Jungle Frog
  • Black and Green Poison Arrow Frog
  • Fitzinger’s Rain Frog
  • Stejneger’s Dirt Frog
  • Tink Frog

Butterflies

  • Anartia Fatima
  • Calospila celissa
  • Dryas iulia
  • Glutophrissa drusilla
  • Heliconius ismenius
  • Heliconius sapho
  • Hermeuptychia hermes
  • Magneuptychia libye
  • Morpho menelaus
  • Phoebis sennae

 Plants

  • Bamboo Orchid Flowering
  • Black Alligator Tree Fruiting
  • Calabash flowering and fruiting
  • Cannonball Tree Flowering
  • Clusia Vine Fruiting
  • Dinner on a Plate Fruiting
  • Monkey Comb Tree Flowering
  • Candlestick Plant Flowering
  • Figs Fruiting
  • Golden Trumpet Vine Flowering
  • Hog Plum Fruiting
  • Ox Eye Vine Flowers
  • Protium Fruits
  • Royal Palms flowering and fruiting
  • Santa Maria Fruiting
  • Yayito Fruiting
  • Ylang Ylang flowering

Stinging Insult Drives You Up A Tree   2 comments


Felipe del Bosque Blog March 27th 2011

Leptophis ahaetulla

Caught in the Rain

This week started with a couple of surprise downpours which occured on two consecutive evenings.  The precipitation was not enough to substantially affect the ground conditions or the plant life, other than perhaps washing away some of the accumulated dust, but it did result in some spontaneous amphibian and crab action, more of which later.

Following the unexpected rainfall, things went back to normal weather-wise, with hot dry and sunny days and clear star filled night skies.

Turning the Tables

This week the Puma sightings continued unabated.  One of Bosque’s barmen, Harry was close to the workshop when a female and cub walked by.  At the time I was lying on the ground about 20 feet away photographing a snake.  The Pumas walked past me but under the cover of the undergrowth, so I was totally unaware of their presence until Harry gestured that they had just passed by.

The next day, early in the morning, some visitors were walking the Titi Trail in search of wildlife.  As they emerged onto the main driveway they were amazed to see “Half Tail”, one of the resident female Pumas running towards them.  They were not the object of her attention, rather what was behind her.  She was being chased by three irate Collared Peccaries, from whom she escaped by rapidly climbing a tree.  The Peccaries agitated by losing their adversary, now stood grunting and puffing at the open jawed visitors.  The peccaries soon tired of the confrontation and trotted off, leaving “Half Tail” with a clear exit to a safe retreat.  She jumped to the ground in front of her awestruck audience, flashed them an indignant glance and left for the forest.  They were fortunate enough to be carrying cameras in hand, took the photographs, and came to breakfast with huge beaming smiles.

In the evening, about an hour after the sun has set, the Jamaican Fruit-eating Bats can still be seen in large numbers feeding from the nectar producing flowers at the top of the Guapinol Tree, but the blooms are rapidly fading and soon this spectacle will be over for yet another year.

Forked Tongues and Lies

This has been a good week for the snakes, or rather a good week for those who like snakes, with several good spots.  Not always everyone’s favorite creature, they still evoke a sense of awe and wonder whenever they are encountered.

One family this week photographed what they thought was a Coral Snake on the trail.  This in itself would not be unusual; there are Coral Snakes at Bosque, two species.  But when they showed me the photographs, they were happy to learn that it was not a Coral Snake that they had seen, it was a Coral Snake mimic, the Coral Crowned Snake, (Tantilla supracincta).  These are normally fossorial, (burrowing), snakes which specialize feeding on centipedes.  Due to their subterranean life style, they are very rarely encountered.

One morning when I had a group out with me on the Zapatero Trail, I found a little brown snake, which although not uncommon, is rarely encountered, the Elegant Litter Snake, (Rhadinea decorata). I popped it into my water bottle so that I could photograph it later in the day.  On arriving back at the bar, there was some commotion around the pool with people photographing something in a small bush.  It could only be one thing, another snake.  This one was a very beautiful Parrot Snake, (Leptophis ahaetulla).

Later that night on a night tour, there was a lot a snake activity, with one Cat-eyed Snake, (Leptodeira septentrionalis), after another moving urgently through the bushes behind the pond.  These were all males intent on finding a female that was obviously releasing sex pheromones announcing her readiness to mate.

Staying with things reptilian, I also recorded a new species of lizard for Bosque del Cabo last week, Norops pentaprion.  This is one of the Anolis lizards, several species of which can be found on the grounds of Bosque, some of them in large numbers.  Norops pentaprion is a stocky Anolis, normally found in the canopy.  It has a grey mottled reticulated skin pattern, with some green on the throat and a cherry red dewlap.

There have been several clutches of Green Iguanas hatch over the past week.  In three or four separate areas in the vicinity of the restaurant, groups of young bright emerald green hatchlings can be seen sunning themselves on the tops of the leaves of low lying vegetation.

Sisterhood of Pain

While out one day, I noticed, not too far from the restaurant, a tree stump with a lot of insect activity.  On closer investigation I found a wasp nest, the exit simply being a hole in the stump.  The wasps were coming and going with frequent industry but I could not see them returning to the nest with anything.

Polybia Wasp

The wasps themselves were one of many species of Polybia wasps which normally construct paper nests occasionally found hanging from the underside of the leaves.  The nests can contain several “Queens” which are reproductive females; all the remaining wasps have reduced reproductive abilities and serve as foragers for food or nest builders.

Polybia Wasp

Polybia wasps are not normally noted for their mild mannered disposition.  They are active predators that catch and chew their prey into smaller pieces.  The sting is used solely for defense and they will defend the nests with a passion.  As the sting is used only for defensive purposes, the venom it contains has evolved to cause the maximum amount of pain to the aggressor.  The wasps will swarm and enthusiastically sting repeatedly, at the same time releasing an alarm pheromone which attracts more belligerent yellow striped defenders to the fray.

Polybia Wasp

I wanted to get some photographs, but the closer I got to the nest, the more I was attracting the attention of agitated investigators which began started flying around my head in ever increasing numbers.  Thankfully, I obtained enough images without provoking any vicious reprisals.

Not Forgetting…..

Still the butterflies continue to impress with sheer numbers of individuals and species.  They are currently joined in their daily carousel of swirling colorful dances by huge numbers of the Green Urania day flying moths, which roost head down on leaves until prompted by your approach into whirling clouds of metallic emerald green.  If you stand still for a few minutes the mini verdant tornado will slowly settle in peaceful repose on the vegetation once more, but ready to resume the vortex at the slightest hint of disturbance.

The briefly damp interlude to the week encouraged the land crabs out of their burrows on nocturnal foraging adventures.  If you were to have ventured into the forest after sundown, you would have been initially greeted by the sound of countless thousands of armored legs scuttling through the dried leaves.  Shine your flashlight in the direction of that sound and you would have found the bright purple and orange form of Halloween Crabs, (Gecarcinus quadratus), urgently trying to escape the beam.

Gecarcinus quadratus

The night of the heaviest rain brought out huge numbers of Costa Rica’s largest tree frog, the Milky Frog, (Trachycephala venulosus),  the males of which were making the most horrendous noise attracting the females to the pond.  The following morning, the pond was quite literally covered in Milky Frog eggs floating on the surface, so the collective choral clamor had obviously served its purpose.

Fruit Salad

Many of the trees that flowered earlier in the dry season have started to produce fruit.  The very arid conditions appear to be making it a very productive year.  Floating around the grounds are small bundles of filamentous threads containing a single dark seed.  These are from the Balsa Trees, one of the few wind dispersed seeds around Bosque.  Another tree that uses air currents to disperse its seeds is the Manglillo which has large flat silvery grey seed pods at the crown.  As they dry, they split releasing oval shaped paper thin and tissue light winged seeds that drift on the faintest of zephyrs.

There are several more substantial fruits to be found around the gardens of Bosque at this moment.  The Cashew is fruiting, bearing the distinct Cashew nuts beneath a swollen meristem which is known as the Cashew Apple or Marañon.  You can eat Cashew Apples but you cannot eat Cashew Nuts; they are very dangerous.  The shell of the nut contains a lot of volatile oils and if you get them on your hands they burn.  Cashews need to be roasted and even then you have to be careful, because if you breathe in the smoke, that can seriously damage your respiratory system.

Another fruit related to Cashew, although not native to Central America, Mango, is also now fruiting.  Cashews and Mangoes belong to the same family of plants as poison oak and poison ivy, so have a care if you suffer any bad reaction to these two plants.

While many of the trees are fruiting this time of year, there are others that have come into bloom and provide a spectacular back drop of color to the multifarious greens of the leafy canopy.  Right now we have floral shows in yellow from the Mayo and Santa Maria Trees standing in contrast to the pastel purples of the Jacarandas.

Philip is a biologist, writer and photographer as well as the onsite naturalist guide at Bosque del Cabo Rainforest lodge on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

www.bosquedelcabo.com

Photo Feature

Snakes are notoriously difficult animals to photograph.  Unless they are coiled up and not moving they can prove to be a nightmare to capture in a fashion that you would like.  Being linear creatures, if they at full stretch you have to back off and all you have is a long piece of colorful string.  That leaves you with the option of trying to get the head and neck shots so that at least you can record those salient features that may prove vital in making a valid identification.

So now you are charged with the sometimes Herculean task of getting a snakes profile shots, a situation that does not always suit the subject.  Trying to use small apertures for a better depth of field requires more light, generally flash.  But that causes the background to be dark.  The subject will quite often not want to stay still, so again, faster shutter speeds, so more light therefore even more flash.

Being very close to the snake with a camera mounted on a tripod means that as soon as the snake moves, and they do move a lot and quickly to boot, they are suddenly out of focus.  I try not to use autofocus as I like to get the eyes in focus so there is a great deal of manual twisting of the focus ring.

All of this is by way of saying, to obtain the following shots my patience was being tried to the limit.  But if I had some mega creature flashing intermittent bright lights at me I too might not be so eager to pose.  After much effort I ended up with the following.

Parrot Snake, (Leptophis ahaetulla)

These are exquisitely colored long graceful tree snakes.  As mentioned above, this one was found by the lodge swimming pool.  Being found in trees by water, their main food item are frogs but they will also take small lizards, nestling birds and I have watched them eating frogs eggs too.  They are diurnal snakes.  That beautiful green body and head allows them to blend in perfectly and disappear into the background vegetation.

Leptophis ahaetulla

If the snake feels intimidated, it will open its mouth wide and face its antagonist presenting a huge gape threat display.  It is generally just bluff and even if they do bite the teeth barely break the surface of the skin.

Leptophis ahaetulla

This one would not stay still.  Sometimes it would reach out towards the lens as if it was going to make its escape over the camera and down the tripod leg.  Eventually I managed to get some half decent shots of it.

Leptophis ahaetulla

Elegant Litter Snake, (Rhadinea decorata)

This is a fairly common little snake but because it lives in leaf litter on the forest floor, it is not generally seen.  If they do get caught out in the open on the trails, they normally make haste under the leaves and at that point they will be gone.  The brown coloration makes them indistinct from the forest soils.  But once you get close up you can see why they have been given the moniker, Elegant Litter Snake.  The brown body now takes on shades of red, with two white stripes along the body, white spots behind the eyes and a gorgeous deep flame orange ventral side.

Rhadinea decorata

They are another diurnal snake that specializes feeding on Rain Frogs along with their terrestrial eggs on the forest floor.

 

Rhadinea decorata

 

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming book:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

Temperature and Rainfall

Average Daily Temp High 94°F.  Average Daily Temp Low 75°F.

Average Daily Rainfall 0.13 ins.  Total Weekly Rainfall 0.9 ins

Average Daily Temp High 34.1 °C.  Average Daily Temp Low 23.6 °C.

Average Daily Rainfall 3.3 mm.  Total Weekly Rainfall 22.9 mm

Species List for the Week

Mammals

  • Howler Monkey
  • Spider Monkey
  • Capuchin Monkey
  • Jamaican Fruit-eating Bats
  • White-nosed Coati
  • Red-tailed Squirrel
  • Agouti
  • Collared Peccaries
  • Puma
  • Virginia Opossum

 

Birds

 

  • Red-lored Amazon
  • Scarlet Macaw
  • Great Currasow
  • Grey-necked Woodrail
  • Marbled Wood Quail
  • Crested Caracara
  • Laughing Falcon
  • Roadside Hawk
  • Crested Owl
  • Rufus Piha
  • Tawney-winged Woodcreeper
  • Wedge-billed Woodcreeper
  • Chestnut-backed Antbirds
  • Black-hooded Antshrike
  • Common Paureque
  • Short-billed Pigeon
  • Long-billed Hermit
  • Golden-crowned Spadebill
  • Blue-crowned Manakin
  • Red-capped Manakin
  • Chestnut-mandibled Toucan
  • Grey-headed Tanager
  • Bright-rumped Atilla
  • Great Crested Flycatcher
  • Great Kiskadee
  • Masked Tityra
  • Riverside Wren
  • Great Tinamou
  • Black-throated Trogon
  • Black Vulture
  • Turkey Vulture

 

Reptiles

 

  • Basilisk
  • Barred Ameiva
  • Four-lined Ameiva
  • Central American Whiptail
  • Green Iguana
  • Golfo Dulce Anolis
  • Central American Smooth Gecko
  • Clawless Gecko
  • Mediterranean House Gecko
  • Barred Forest Racer
  • Boa Constrictor
  • Cat-eyed Snake
  • Elegant Litter Snake
  • Parrot Snake
  • Teriopelo
  • Tropical Bird-eating Snake

 

Amphibians

 

  • Marine Toad
  • Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Masked Smilisca
  • Smokey Jungle Frog
  • Milky Frog
  • Black and Green Poison Arrow Frog
  • Fitzinger’s Rain Frog
  • Rough-skinned Dirt Frog

 

Butterflies

 

  • Adelpha boeotia
  • Adelpha cytherea
  • Anartia Fatima
  • Anartia jatrophae
  • Anthanassa ardys
  • Arawacus lincoides
  • Archaeoprepona demophon
  • Astraptes fulgerator
  • Callicore lyca
  • Chioides albofasciata
  • Colobura dirce
  • Consul fabius
  • Dione juno
  • Dryas iulia
  • Eueides aliphera
  • Eueides lybia
  • Eurema albula
  • Eurema daira
  • Glutophrissa Drusilla
  • Heliconius cydno
  • Heliconius erato
  • Heliconius hecale
  • Heliconius ismenius
  • Heliconius sapho
  • Heraclides cresphontes
  • Hermeuptychia hermes
  • Hyalyris excelsa
  • Junonia everete
  • Laparus doris
  • Marpesia alcibiades
  • Marpesia berania
  • Marpesia furcula
  • Mechanitis polymnia
  • Melinaea scylax
  • Morpho helenor
  • Morpho Menelaus
  • Morpho theseus
  • Pareuptychia ocirrhoe
  • Philaethria dido
  • Phoebis agarithe
  • Phoebis argante
  • Phoebis sennae
  • Pierella luna
  • Pyrisitia nise
  • Pyrrhogyra crameri
  • Quadrus cerialis
  • Tigridia acesta
  • Urbanus proteus
  • Urbanus simplicius
  • Urbanus teleus

Plants

 

  • Almendra Fruiting
  • Balsa Fruiting
  • Cashew Flowering and Fruiting
  • Cercropia fruiting
  • Calabash flowering and fruiting
  • Monkey Comb Tree fruiting
  • Black Alligator Tree Fruiting
  • Garlic Tree Fruiting
  • Candlestick Plant Flowering.
  • Cannonball Tree Fruiting
  • Figs Fruiting
  • Heisteria fruiting
  • Jacaranda Flowering
  • May Tree Flowering
  • Manglillo Fruiting
  • Passion Vine Flowering
  • Pochote Tree Flowering
  • Psychotria Fruiting
  • Rubber Tree Flowering and Fruiting
  • Stinky Toe Flowering and Fruiting
  • Guanacaste Tree Fruiting
  • Santa Maria Flowering
  • Astrocaryum Palm Fruiting
  • Schelea Palm Fruiting
  • Ylang ylang Flowering

 

 

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