Archive for the ‘Phasmid’ Tag

Phasmids: A Neotropical Walking Stick   2 comments


Wildlife, nature, fauna and flora of Costa Rica.

Sticking to the Twigs

There are some animals that live out in the open, right in front of your eyes, and yet you never see them.  That is because they don’t want to be seen.  Only when mistakenly they venture forth onto a background that reveals their presence will you have the opportunity to marvel at their disguises.  One such group of animals are the Phasmatodea, more commonly known as Walking Sticks or Stick Insects.

Last week I saw one that had made such an error.  It had left the vegetation where it lives perfectly concealed from view and had wandered onto the screen of my cabin.  There it stood out like a sore thumb.  Thankfully for the phasmid it was my eyes that saw it before those of any potential predator.  If removed the unfortunate creature and placed it back amongst some twigs from which I could take its picture but also from where it could make its way back into the obscurity of the vegetation.

Phamatodea: Walking stick in Costa Rican Rainforest

The long spindly legs and body of a Walking Stick make enable it to avoid the attention of predators

The body and legs of the walking stick are long and spindly.  They are either green or brown in color and quite often, as this one was, a mixture of the two.  The body and legs are grooved and have small thorns.  They resemble so perfectly a twig that, even when you are looking directly at them, they are imperceptible.  Some species have wings but not the one I was looking at.  They are vegetarian and tend to be host specific.  Walking sticks reach the zenith of their diversity in tropical forests such as these, of the 2,500 species identified so far, 30% live in the Neotropics.

As well as the perfectly camouflaged body form the phasmids use other means by which to complete the illusion.  This one, when disturbed, would rock back and forth as a twig being blown in a breeze.  Then it would freeze and hold the front legs as well as the long filamentous antennae out in front of its head to make to enhance its long twig-like form.

In and Out of the Rainbow

There has been a new wave of plant life that has come into bloom over the past week or so.  The cycle of change in the forest is such that throughout the year you are never short of something new to see or hear each time you venture out onto one of the trails.  As the flowers of certain species turn to fruit, then so do others come into bloom.  The flowers and fruit provide a continual annual transition of color and form.  You only have to keep your eyes open as you walk and you will be rewarded with a visual sensory feast.

Last week one of the most obvious additions to the floral display was the Recadito, (Palicourea guianensis) of the family: Rubiaceae.  The multi-clustered bright yellow flowers are borne on a vivid red stalk at the end of the branches.  They are visited a lot by butterflies, especially if found growing at the forest edge.  It is a small tree with large leaves and is reasonably common in wet habitat from Mexico to Bolivia.  There are 27 species of Palicourea to be found in Costa Rica, 3 of which occur on the Osa Peninsula.

Rubaceae of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

The distinctive floral display of Recadito, (Palicouria guianensis)

Another related plant, but much smaller and subtler is the Cafecito, (Psychotria capitata).  It too, belongs in the family: Rubiaceae but it is a very large genus, 115 of which live in Costa Rica, 40 of those on the Osa Peninsula.  They are not always easy to identify to species level.  This one, Psychotria capitata has small white flowers which when pollinated give rise to small purple berries.  At that point it resembles a rather swollen blackberry fruit.

Cafecito, (Psychotria capitata), Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

Delicate white flowers of the unobtrusive Cafecito, (Psychotria capitata)

Crosier for a Green Bishop

Ferns, or pteridophytes, are non-flowering vascular plants that most people who enjoy walking in the countryside will be familiar with.  You will not see fruits or seeds as ferns produce tiny dust-like spores produced in special spore cases on the underside of the leaves.  There are about 800 species of fern in Costa Rica but their form is so distinctive that they are not too difficult to recognize as such.  They are mostly low growing in shady areas of the forest but there are some that grow to a substantial size, the tree ferns.  These behemoths of the pteridophyte world, along with the cycads, were the dominant form of terrestrial vegetation before flowering plants evolved, and can be regarded as the “Food of the Dinosaurs”.

There are tree ferns found growing in these forests but they don’t reach the giant statures of those in other parts of the world.  Most of the ferns here are of the low growing type.  When a new leaf is produced it lies in the center of the plant, wound around itself like a green rope on a spool.  As the days pass it unfurls up and outward, revealing leaves that appear as an organic fractal, repeating the pattern on a smaller and ever smaller basis.  Eventually as the stalk has reached its maximum growth, the final part resembles a Bishop’s Crozier, which ultimately uncurls and the side-branching leaves and leaflets open out to reveal the familiar frond.

Pteridophytes of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

An unfurling fern frond

Mustachioed Murderer

Walking through the forest I entered a more open spot where the sun was lighting up a clearing.  I noticed something move very quickly on the forest floor.  It settled on the surface of a leaf.  I knew what it was but to begin with I was a little puzzled as it looked to possess four large eyes, so in my mind I was looking at one insect perched on top of another.  I bent down to take a closer look and I could now see my mistake.  There were most certainly two very large distinctive eyes but the dark markings contrasting with the yellow ground color of the thorax gave it the appearance of a second insect sitting on its back.  I could now also confirm my identification as that of a Robber Fly, family: Asilidae.

Robber flies are true flies of the order: Diptera and therefore only possess one pair of wings.  A distinctive feature of the robber flies is the cluster of hairs at the front of the head that give them a look of an Edwardian gentleman sporting a rather luxurious mustache.  This is known as a mystax, which is taken from the Greek word for mustache.

Why would a fly have a protective mustache of bristles protecting the front of the head?  The Robber Flies are accomplished predators and will hunt down any arthropod of a suitable size, not too small, not too large, that makes the unfortunate mistake of entering into the killer’s field of view.  The Robber Fly has large eyes and respond with speed to a potential meal.  It uses the stiletto-like piercing mouthparts to stab its victim and to inject a saliva which contains a deadly cocktail of neurotoxins and cell destroying enzymes which render the prey to a corpse being digested from within.  The fly then sucks out the pre-digested meal.  They have no hesitation in attacking wasps and ants which themselves are capable of inflicting a fatal bite or sting.  The mustache serves to protect the fly from such retribution.

Asilidae: Robber fly on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

Assassin with stilleto ; Robber fly with cockroach prey

Robber Flies prefer sunny gaps in the forest, which is exactly where I found this one.  They sit on a perch located low to the ground and wait for a meal to pass by.  Their reaction speed is so fast that in a blur of the eye they can snatch a flying insect out of the air.  You can see in the photograph that this one had just caught a tropical cockroach.  Don’t try to catch one in your hand as a stab from that proboscis is very painful.

There are about 7,500 species of Robber Fly distributed around the planet, preferring warmer areas that are arid or receive only seasonal rainfall.  They are not that hard to find, pick a sunny light gap and then you just have to sit and watch for that quick movement.

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

Sun and Moon, Bananas and Lichen.   2 comments


Philip Davison. Costa Rica. Blog. Nature Diaries

Sunny September

The clement weather conditions are continuing to prevail.  The rain we are receiving is most certainly intense but by no means prolonged.  If there is one day of rain it is being followed by two days of sun.  This time of year there are very few visitors.  September and October are not big holiday periods.  For anyone who does want to visit Costa Rica at this time of year you can certainly avoid the crowds but you also run the risk of being confined to your cabin unless you want to suffer a constant soaking.  For those of us who do live here then the quiet time and unseasonably dry and sunny conditions give us time to go and explore a little more or in my case catch up with the writing.

I’m Lichen That

One night when I was out doing my nightly frog counts I came across one of the Anolis lizards that I see more often up in the canopy, a Lichen Anole, (Anolis pentaprion).  This individual was sleeping but when I turned the lights on to video the creature in its state of slumber the instant change from night to apparent day woke it.  Not only did the lizard stir but the increase in light levels drew in some of the insects including one of the few species of night-flying wasps, Apoica pallida.  It landed near the lizard’s head so presenting itself as an easy meal the advantage of which it was not going to refuse despite having only just being disturbed from its sleep.  With a quick snap of the jaws the wasp was caught, chewed up and down the body and then swallowed.  The Anolis then soporifically walked up the small branch on which it was clinging, climbed atop a leaf into a darker location than it was now finding itself, closed its eyes and went back to sleep.

Anolis lizards are a very diverse genus with many closely related genera belonging to the family: Polychrotidae.  There are well over 200 species of Anolis and each species quite often is divided into a number of subspecies.  Anolis lizards are similar to geckos in that they have an anatomically specialized structure to the toes, (lamellae), that allow then to climb with ease including smooth vertical walls and even panes of glass.  Anolis lizards are generally small and unless you notice some movement as they jump through the vegetation then they can easily be overlooked.  In terms of ecology smaller species inhabit the lower levels of the forest and conversely larger species the higher levels.

Anolis pentaprion

Lichen Anole

Although the family is species rich, it is not always easy to identify the individuals to species level.  One factor that does help is the males have a loose flap of skin under the chin called a dewlap.  Thankfully each species has a different color dewlap, particularly pronounced in this area.  The loose skin is attached to a rod of cartilage fixed at the jaw over which the lizard has muscular control.  The lowering of the cartilage extends the skin revealing the brightly colored flag which is in stark contrast to the more usual body color and it is used to intimidate and scare rival males from the territory or used to court females.  Certainly if you see that bright flash of color appear as if from nowhere then there will be a second individual you may not be so aware of but it will be somewhere close by in the vicinity.  The dewlap of the Lichen Anole is a deep purple edged with magenta and is not as large as in some other species.  Most females do not possess a dewlap and because there is a strong sexual dimorphism can prove a little more difficult to identify.  Here on the Osa Peninsula there are only seven species of Anole and they are all fairly distinct in appearance both male and females.

Many Moons

There are two particular species that seem to have reacted to this year’s slightly abnormal weather conditions.  One is a butterfly and the other is a frog.  They have both been recorded in numbers in excess of those normally found.

The Luna Satyr, (Pierella luna), is a largish brown butterfly that is normally found throughout the year but for the most part as solitary individuals or in small groups.  It is found flying very close to the forest floor in the dark, dank, shady conditions beneath the forest canopy.  You will quite often only notice it when it momentarily passes by your feet, wings beating slowly, as it moves from one side of the path to the other.  It will disappear under the vegetation and when it settles the muted grays and browns of its now still wings blend it immediately into the background.  It prefers the denser aspect of secondary forest as opposed to the more open situation beneath primary forest.  This may have something to do with the distribution of its larval host plant, species in the family: Heliconiaceae, many of which can be found in secondary forest habitat.

This year when walking along trails through secondary forest Luna Satyr could be found in huge numbers much larger than experienced before.  I am not sure what triggered the population explosion but the adults have not been hard to find, sometimes in groups numbering ten or more.  The slightest disturbance caused by your footfall will have them momentarily take to the air before quickly alighting once more on the ground.

Pierella luna

Luna Satyr

A Big Bunch

The Banana Frog, (Dendropsophus ebreccatus), is one of those small tree frogs that you can more or less guarantee you will see if you go to the pond at night.  They are ever present throughout the year.  At the height of the amphibian breeding season which starts when the rains arrive in April, gets into full swing in May and draws to a close by the end of August, the Banana Frog males can be both seen and heard in reasonably large numbers every night.  Those numbers reduce outside of the breeding season to the point where during the dry season it might only be one forlorn male out calling but there will always be one.

The males emerge as the sun slowly sinks beneath the western horizon.  They set up their territories on the Water Lettuce or Water Hyacinth and call vigorously with a protracted “Eeeack”.  The larger egg bearing females emerge a little later, select a male on the quality of his call, makes her way over to the male of choice, they pair up and later she lays a sheet of small jelly coated eggs on the surface of a leaf which the male fertilizes.  The eggs develop here for 7 or 8 days, the tadpoles wriggle free and slip below the surface of the water from where they will emerge about 8 weeks later as small froglets.

Whereas this time of year when all the other frog species have either disappeared from the breeding pond or are present in only small numbers, the Banana Frog has seen a surge in numbers.  There are presently in the region of 20 calling males every evening.  It could well be that they are taking advantage of the lack of competition from other species, although there are not too many other species that do use the Water lettuce, (Pistia stratiote), and Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes).  The tadpoles of other frogs do have to compete for space and food once they have entered the water, some of which may be larger and/or more voracious than D. ebreccatus tadpoles.  It may simply be the fact that there is still a lot of rain which is perfect for the eggs but that is the norm every year.  Whatever the reason if you could down to the pond at the minute after sunset you will be greeted by a vociferous chorus of amorous Banana Frogs.

Dendropsophus ebreccatus

Banana Frog

Seeing You Walk for the First Time

Last week I happened across an insect that has proved to be somewhat difficult to identify.  What initially caught my eye were the colors, most strikingly the bright yellow.  The head was small but the body was long and soft.  The wings too were brightly colored but in green.  My first thoughts were that it was some kind of Phasmid or Walking Stick, more precisely a winged walking stick.  It did not seem to be disturbed when I moved it from the bare white stucco wall where its colors were making it rather conspicuous to some nearby vegetation where it was less obvious.  Not moving is part of a Phasmids game plan though.  I took some photos and headed off to my reference library.

Phasmid

Winged Walking Stick

As with most insects that I see for the first time after 16 years of living here I just know the identification is going to be difficult.  Insects are so prohibitively numerous in number of species, especially tropical insects.  The reference material available is limited and by no means exhaustive.  So after some searching I was not really any further forward than still being confident it was a winged phasmid.  Time to scour that great resource the internet.  Scrutinizing photo after photo all I could conclude that it was a winged phasmid but there was nothing I could see that looked remotely like this individual.  So if there are any phasmid experts that may be reading this and could enlighten me as to a genus or species I would love to hear from you.

Phasmid

Winged Walking Stick

Philip Davison is a biologist, writer and photographer based in Costa Rica.

 

Bosque del Cabo July 2011 Nature Review   Leave a comment


Felipe del Bosque Blog July 2011 Review

The weather continued to be kind to visitors during July.  The precipitation increased dramatically but again a lot of it at night with the days being warm and sunny.

The sap from the fallen Milky Tree had run dry and the bees had made short work of collecting the available latex leaving only the exposed wood.  The moisture content of the tree had now been evaporated into the air, so the tree had started to crack in section.

Over the past few years a succession of Long-tailed Hermits, (Phaethornis superciliosus), have built nests, laid eggs and raised young on the underside of palm leaves next to the restaurant.  This location probably affords them protection from predators as it is subject to a lot of human activity.  People tend to observe the hummingbird and continue about their business without molesting them.

Phaethornis superciliosus

There are a good variety of hummingbirds in the grounds of Bosque.  The hermits are trap liners; they visit a set series of nectar producing flowers over the course of the day.  Just in front of the restaurant they can be seen imbibing the sweet sugary solution of nectar from the heliconias.  In return for providing this food source, the hummingbirds which have become dusted with pollen, transfer it to other heliconias of the same species thus fertilizing the plants.

Other hummingbirds seen around the grounds are the pugnacious little Rufus-tailed Hummingbird, Violet-crowned Woodnymph, White-necked Jacobin, Stripe-throated Hermit, Bronzy Hermit, Blue-throated Goldentail and the White-crested Coquette.

One unusual visitor that turned up in the grounds this month was a young American Crocodile.  As the crocodiles are normally found in estuaries and salt water environments in is a mystery how this one managed to make its way up to 500 feet above sea level.  It did not look in the best of health so it was taken back to where it would normally be found, down in one of the creeks close to the sea.

Crocodylus acutus

Over recent months, some of our visitors taking a walk on the Pacific Beach below Bosque have seen a large “lizard-like” animal heading into the ocean upon their approach.  Most descriptions had it looking like a crocodile.  Although I did not see the animal myself, if something that looks like a crocodile is in an area where crocodiles live, my guess would be that it was indeed a crocodile.

Although generally shy and retiring from human presence, the American crocodile can reach upto 20 feet in length.  Its normal diet is fish, but it is nonetheless a huge predatory reptile and there have been several accounts of people being killed by crocodiles in Costa Rica.

Phasmids and mantids always make interesting photographic subjects.  The problem with these two groups is that many of them are masters of disguise.  It is often through good fortune rather than concerted effort that will locate the walking sticks and praying mantises.  I found these two quite close together over a short period of time last July.

Phasmid sp

Mantid sp

Finally the obligatory unidentified beetle.  One of the things I would really like to devote more time to is the identification of the arthropods I find.  I have enough trouble with the group that I most familiar with, the butterflies, but I see so many beetles, odonates, orthoptera and spiders that I have photographed and would like to put a name to.  But to quote a well hackneyed saying, “there are only so many hours in a day” and mine currently are filled.   One day when I have more time to myself I may get to revisit the photos and name the species I saw.  In the meantime I hope everyone continues to enjoy my work and I look forward to starting my new weekly blog updates for Bosque del Cabo when I return next week.

Unidentified Beetle

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming books:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

The Small World of Bosque del Cabo

The Colors of Bosque del Cabo

A Children’s Guide to Bosque del Cabo Rainforest Lodge

Temperature and Rainfall

Average M Temp High 86°F.  Average Daily Temp Low 73°F.

Average Daily Rainfall 1.15 ins.  Total Monthly Rainfall 35.55 ins

Average Daily Temp High 29.0°C.  Average Daily Temp Low 22.7°C.

Average Daily Rainfall 29.0 mm.  Total Monthly Rainfall 897.8 mm

 

Sticking With The Rain   1 comment


Felipe del Bosque Blog Sept 5th 2011

I have taken a few weeks off from the blog due to the number of different project I am trying to get written up before I go away for a month in October.  If anyone reading these blogs is not already aware my main reason for being in Costa Rica, it is to carry out research into climate change and its affect on the fauna and flora of a tropical rain forest.  I am not affiliated to any academic body or institution, my work is all my own.  I do not receive funding to help with studies, so in order to maintain a base from which I can work, for the past 11 years I have been doing guided tours for Bosque del Cabo Rain Forest Lodge.

Over the past eleven years I have accumulated vast data sets based on continual monitoring of butterfly and amphibian populations as well as measuring just about every climatic variable you could think of.  It is now time to stop the data collection and start the process of analysis.  Next year I hope to have all that work completed in order to publish the results and conclusions.

As I am not beholden to anyone for the results of my work, the intention is to release it on a dedicated website so that it has a wider general audience.  As I have been using standardized techniques, then my findings hopefully will become comparable with and complement anyone doing similar studies anywhere around the world.

As if all of that is not enough, I have been writing several books to act as souvenir guides to Bosque.  Due to not having the luxury of much time to myself, it has taken many years to take the photographs and write the text but with a little determination these too should be completed within the coming year.

And on top of all that I try without exception to get a weekly blog out so that anyone interested can tap into the amazing location that is Bosque del Cabo, keep in touch with the comings and goings of the plants and animal life here, maybe plan a trip based around the weather reports and species lists or just join us vicariously as I regale with tales from Bosque del Cabo and its incredible natural history.

A Little Summer Rain

The first two weeks of July would have had the visitors to Bosque thinking that this was October.  The rain was very heavy and incessant.  We had nearly 24 inches of rain for the first 14 days.   But then things changed.  For the next two weeks, the rains more or less stopped and the visitors were treated to long days of bright, sunny, dry weather.  Whatever precipitation did occur was experienced at night.  This was a situation that suited most of our guests.

This time of year we experience what is known as a “Veranillo” or little summer.  We are right in the middle of the wet season but conditions dry up for two weeks.  It always occurs sometime around the end of July/beginning of August, you can never be sure exactly which two weeks it is going to be.

Those conditions continued through August we have had sunny days with rain at night, but some of those nights have provided visitors the opportunity to experience just what the rain part of rain forest means.  One night we had over 7 inches of rain.  That substantial weight of water being delivered to the top of the trees in a short space of time saw a lot of trees fall.  The following morning, all of the trails at Bosque were blocked along their path by not only large fallen trees but also by a great many trees crowns that could not support the burden of water.  That provided enough extra work to keep our trail maintenance team busy for a while.

Crawling with Cats

Some weeks ago, I was returning from the Primary Forest tour with a couple of visitors and on the final stretch of the trail across the suspension bridge, below us a Jaguarundi was standing in a forest clearing.  Whether it saw us or not it did not seem to be unduly concerned.  It moved off in that typical fluid feline motion over a large buttressed root and without even casting a glance our way disappeared behind the tree and that was the sighting over.

Jaguarundi’s are small sleek cats somewhat larger than a large house cat.  They come in several color forms, the one we get at Bosque being the very dark grey, almost black.  About a month after our sighting another couple saw one crossing the path by the Titi Trail and just the other day a visiting biologist saw one in the same area.

This maybe the Chinese year of the cat, but here at Bosque it most certainly has been the year of the Puma.  The number of times people have seen Pumas this year is incredible.  Now, into September, this situation continued unabated. We have been having, on occasion, multiple Puma sightings on one day.  Most, as with earlier this year, if not on the Titi Trail, have occurred in that vicinity.  The last encounter, just a few days ago, happened when a couple of guests found themselves walking along the trail with a Puma nonchalantly ambling along in front of them.

Good for Some

The Milky Tree that fell last month has now started showing signs of drying out.  All the milky resinous sap that initially leaked out has gone, mostly taken by bees of various species for nest construction.  Now we have the first level of obvious decomposers moving in, the beetles.  Rather than the adults, it is the larvae that feed on the dead wood, hastening its decomposition.  At the minute though lots of species of beetle are pairing up on the face of the now exposed heartwood which is where they will lay their eggs.

The Long-billed Hermit, (Phaethornis longirostris), that had started to construct her nest by the kitchen entrance last week has completed her task and is now incubating eggs.  She is completely unperturbed by the constant comings and goings of the lodge staff in the area, and the traffic is constant all day long.  It could well be that is why she opted to build the nest in that particular location.  The human non-predators may well be seen as keeping any potential predators of her, the eggs or her chicks at bay.  Having said that though, many of the birds’ nests that are built in or around the restaurant area, sooner or later attract the attention of the Tropical Bird-eating Snakes, and they too have little regard for the big pink monkeys wandering around the concrete and stucco jungle.

Not So Good For Others

Following the heavy rainfall and the subsequent fall into bright sunny weather for the past two months has seen the area subject to but a few severe overnight convection storms.   About one month ago, there was an instance where we suffered over 7 inches of rain falling overnight.  For many trees, that burden of weight was simply too much.  The following day, it did not matter which trail you walked, the way was blocked with large fallen trunks.  It took the trail maintenance team several days to finally cut their way through them all and clear the paths.

Philip is a biologist, writer and photographer as well as the onsite naturalist guide at Bosque del Cabo Rainforest lodge on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

www.bosquedelcabo.com

Photo Feature

Prayer Sticks

I think most people are familiar with the Phasmids and Mantids, but rather under different names, Walking Sticks and Praying Mantises.  They have a basic body form that would be instantly recognizable, but only if you could see them.  And that is the problem, they have evolved to blend in perfectly with the background vegetation, firstly to avoid predation and secondly, most certainly in the case of the mantises, to stop their potential prey from seeing them.  Over the course of the year I will find at least one or two species serendipitously.  If I spend a little more time closely examining the vegetation I can generally find one or two species more.

Unidentified Phasmid

Phasmids, or Walking Sticks are vegetarian, many species being host plant specific.  Their body form typically resembles a dead twig, long and thin with spindly legs, and many a time you may find yourself looking directly at the animal but unable to see it.  Some have wings, particularly the females.  Should a potential predator get too close, the Walking Stick has several other methods of completing the deception of crypsis; swaying like a twig in the breeze, remaining motionless, flying off or falling to the ground, flashing brightly colored wings, rattling the wings and some release a noxious chemical spray.

Unidentified Phasmid

Mantids on the other hand are strictly carnivorous.  Instantly recognizable by the prey catching front legs held distinctively in the position of someone at prayer.  The mantids can sometimes be a match for the phasmids when it comes to disguise not only bearing the colors of vegetation but also have the morphological appearance of anything from sticks to leaves to bean pods to flower heads.  It would take a sharp-eyed potential prey item to see its nemesis sitting in wait amongst the vegetation.

Unidentified Mantid

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming book:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

Temperature and Rainfall

Average Daily Temp High 89°F.  Average Daily Temp Low 74°F.

Average Daily Rainfall 0.64 ins.  Total Weekly Rainfall 4.51 ins

Average Daily Temp High 31.0°C.  Average Daily Temp Low 24.1°C.

Average Daily Rainfall 15.2 mm.  Total Weekly Rainfall 106.7 mm

Species List for the Week

Mammals

  • Howler Monkey
  • Spider Monkey
  • Squirrel Monkey
  • White-faced Monkey
  • White-nosed Coati
  • Agouti
  • Red-tailed Squirrel
  • Nine-banded Armadillo

Birds

  • Red-lored Amazon
  • Scarlet Macaw
  • Crested Caracara
  • Laughing Falcon
  • Roadside Hawk
  • Yellow-headed Caracara
  • Great Currasow
  • Black-hooded Antbirds
  • Chestnut-backed Antbird
  • Golden-crowned Spadebill
  • Short-billed Pigeon
  • White-tipped Dove
  • Chestnut-mandibled Toucan
  • Pale-billed Woodpecker
  • Bright-rumped Atilla
  • Great Tinamou
  • Riverside Wren
  • Black-throated Trogon
  • Black Vulture
  • Turkey Vulture

Reptiles

  • Barred Ameiva
  • Four-lined Ameiva
  • Golfo Dulce Anolis
  • Clawless Gecko
  • Mediterranean House Gecko
  • Cat-eyed Snake
  • Boa Constrictor
  • Terciopelo

Amphibians

  • Marine Toad
  • Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Banana Frog
  • Smokey Jungle Frog
  • Black and Green Poison Arrow Frog
  • Fitzinger’s Rain Frog
  • Stejneger’s Dirt Frog
  • Tink Frog

Butterflies

  • Anartia Fatima
  • Caligo eurilochus
  • Chloreuptychia arnica
  • Cissia confusa
  • Dione juno
  • Dryas iulia
  • Glutophrissa drusilla
  • Heliconius erato
  • Heliconius ismenius
  • Heliconius sapho
  • Heraclides cresphontes
  • Hermeuptychia hermes
  • Morpho helenor
  • Morpho Menelaus
  • Panoquina panoquinoides
  • Parides erithalion
  • Pierella luna
  • Pyrgus oileus
  • Urbanus tanna

 Plants

  • Black Alligator Tree Fruiting
  • Calabash flowering and fruiting
  • Clusia Vine Fruiting
  • Dinner on a Plate Fruiting
  • Monkey Comb Tree Flowering and Fruiting
  • Candlestick Plant Flowering and Flowering.
  • Figs Fruiting
  • Lechoso Fruiting
  • May Tree Fruiting
  • Manglillo Fruiting
  • Nutmeg Fruiting
  • Santa Maria Flowering and Fruiting
  • Yayito Fruiting