Archive for the ‘Rainforest spiders’ Tag

OGRE-FACED SPIDER: STARING YOU DOWN   4 comments


Wildlife, nature, fauna and flora of Costa Rica.

The weather is beginning to change.  There are now more rainy days with brief intervals of sun, generally shining in the morning.  Most of the nights are wet, with the rain beginning in the early hours of the evening then continuing through till dawn.  The rain is not heavy but it is constant.  This will now be the pattern until mid-November.  The opportunities to get out and take photographs is going to become more and more limited as the days and weeks go by.

Ogre-faced Spider

Sometimes you just have to be lucky and find yourself in the right place at the right time.  Many years ago I had taken some photographs of a particular species of spider and since then had been hoping to see this species again to get a close up of one of its startling features, the eyes.  I have come across it several times over the years but, unfortunately, never when I was carrying the camera.  Last week my luck changed and I found one without actually looking for it and I did have my camera in hand.

The spider in question is an Ogre-faced Spider, (Deinopis sp), of the family: Deinopidae.  Once you see the spider in close up then the reason for the name will be revealed.  Those two large, forward-facing eyes give the appearance of a mythical ogre staring at you.

Rainforest animals. Rainforest Spiders. Ogre-faced spider. Deinopidae. Costa Rica.

Ogre-faced Spider, (Deinopis sp), easier to see at an angle

The Ogre-faced spiders are not typical orb-weavers, they belong to a group known as lace-web weavers and have evolved a different means of employing silk to catch prey.  There are only 57 species of Ogre-faced spiders but they are found throughout the tropics.  They have long legs and a long abdomen, (opisthosoma).  If they do move, it is slowly and deliberately.  The coloration matches the tree bark on which they are commonly found hanging in a head down position.  During the day they lie flat against the tree to avoid being seen.  But as the sun sets they move into position and set about constructing the ingenious part of its prey capturing trap which is held between the front two pairs of legs.

These four legs have a dry silk frame strung between them.  Attached to the frame is a net made from sticky elastic silk.  An unsuspecting prey item passing below the spider is in for a nasty surprise.  The spider, connected by a dragline drops and opens the front four legs which extend the net.  It is dropped onto of the victim and when the legs are drawn together again the net closed and ensnares the spiders next meal.  The web is shaken a few times to ensure the prey is completely enmeshed, all the while the spider is wrapping in more silk from the spinnerets and continually biting its prey to inject the venom.  The secured and now deceased prey is held in the palps while the spider feeds and at the same time constructs a new net ready for the next meal to arrive.

Spiders. Rainforests. Costa Rica. Ogre-faced Spider.

The long-legged, long-bodied Ogre-faced Spider

The feature I was interested in were the eyes.  At 1.4mm in diameter, these forward-facing eyes are the largest simple eyes possessed of any land invertebrate.  The eyes have an equivalent camera f/stop of 0.6 which enable them to see very well in dark conditions, the time when the spider hunts.  This, combined with retinal receptors capable of absorbing the smallest amount of ambient light, 2000 x more than other spiders, means they can hunt in, what to you and I, is total darkness.  You can’t see the spider but the spider can see you.  Also, this one was a male as can be seen from the enlarged pedipalps under the front of the head.  These are used during spider mating.

Rainforest animals. Rainforest Spiders. Spiders. Deinopis sp. Ogre-faced Spider. Costa Rica.

Now you can see those eyes and the features that give it the name; Ogre-faced Spider

Weirdness on the Web

It has been a spidery kind of week.  When I was out walking the trails I noticed a small web strung across the path with what I first thought was a small spider removing the papery veil of a Jacaranda seed that had landed there.  In the past I have seen various orb-weavers cutting the silk securing an unrequired piece of material that had land in the web, hold it out with their legs until free of the web and let it drop to the ground.  Not too far down the same trail I saw a similar thing so I decided to take a closer look.  The spider itself was very small and with the naked eye it looked strange, I had not seen this species before and could not quite make out the form.  Something just wasn’t right.

Rainforest animals. Rainforest Spiders. Micrathenidae. Micrathena gracilis. Costa Rica.

Spiny Micrathena hanging from web, viewed from behind

I took several photographs and looked on the camera screen.  The body of the spider was unlike any I had previously seen.  The abdomen, (opisthosoma), was drawn up dorsally and expanded laterally.  It was covered in a series of fleshy, thorn-like protuberances.  I was looking at a Spined Micrathena, (Micrathena gracilis).  During the course of the day I found 3 of these spiders, which is strange because I had never seen this species before.  Later, when back online and researching more information, I learned it is quite common and widespread.  Oh well, new for me and happy to have finally made its acquaintance.

Rainforest animals. Rainforest Spiders. Micrathenidae. Spiny Micrathena. Costa Rica.

Dorsal view of Spiny Micrathena Spider

Only a few meters down the trail from where I photographed the Spined Micrathena I found another web traversing the path at about 6 feet above the ground.  Sitting in the center was yet one more spider that I was unfamiliar with.  I knew it was one of the Spiny-bodied Spiders, of which I have found a variety of different species over the years.  Unlike Micrathena gracilis above, most Spiny-bodied Spiders are brightly colored and elongated with spines and thorns projecting from the body, sometimes giving them an arrow-shape.  I knew this was a Micrathena, the body was long with black centered red spots on a yellow background and with only two more fleshy spines pointing backwards from the abdomen.  Extensive searching failed to produce a name for this species.  So two new spiders in one day and within several feet of each other.

Rainforest animals. Rainforest Spiders. Spiny-bodied Spider. Micrathenidae. Costa Rica.

Strange Spiny-bodied Spider, (Micrathena sp), awaiting identification

Finally I noticed a small web strung not too far above my head in the open garden area.  In the center of the web was a small brightly-colored but very distinctively spider.  The abdomen was vivid lemon yellow with a series of black spots drawn out sideways into an oval shape bearing ferocious looking thorns around the edge.  This was another Spiny-bodied Spider, (Gasteracantha cancriformis).

Rainforest Spiders. Rainforest animals. Gasteracanthinae. Spiny-bodied Spider. Costa Rica.

Spiny-bodied Spider, (Gasteracantha cancriformis)

They are a very common species but are so small that you generally don’t notice them until you walk into the web.  To avoid this situation the silken strands securing the web are flocked with fluffy pieces of silk to make it more obvious to larger creatures.  They come in various color, yellow, white and red being the commonest.  They are very widespread, being found from southern U.S. to northern Brazil and everywhere in-between including the Caribbean Islands.

It is a very short-lived spider; the females die after producing an egg cocoon and the males die a short time after mating.  In certain locations it is another spider that has a reputation it does not deserve.  Some of the native populations regard it as being very venomous.  It is quite harmless.

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

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TARANTULAS AND THE DANCE OF DEATH   2 comments


Wildlife, nature, fauna and flora of Costa Rica.

The weather on Cabo Matapalo continues to favor the visitor.  Over the past week the days have been dry and sunny, there has been little rain at all.  The rain that has fallen has been at night after everyone has returned to the comfort of their cabins.  There was one afternoon when an electric storm developed over the tip the tip of the peninsula.  Thunder echoed loudly throughout the forest, the rumbles seemingly shaking the ground beneath your feet, whilst simultaneously lightning sizzled and cracked overhead illuminating the surrounding area with blinding flashes of light.  The rain poured vertically down from the heavens and within no time the paths had turned into running rivers.  The whole event lasted little more than an hour and ended as abruptly as it began.  The thunder rolled off into the distance, a herald of the deluge that was about to be visited upon the neighboring areas.

There would appear to be no letup in the enthusiasm of the breeding amphibians.  Each night the number of calling males remains constant.  The vegetation around the pond is covered in the eggs of many species.  It is strange that this year should have seen a surge in the population of Small-headed Frogs, (Dendropsophus microcephala), which previously have been present in small numbers but this year have exploded to the point where they are the most vocal of nightly serenaders.

This has also been an exceptional year for the White-nosed Coatis, (Nasua narica).  They are normally to be found around the gardens and throughout the forest and therefore are easily encountered.  One of the first animals people see upon arrival are the coatis with their striped tails, slightly curved at the tip, stuck directly up in the air.  The males are solitary and tend to bolder in their approach to people.  The females, which band together in large groups with the young, until recently were more shy and retiring, they would run if you got too close.  At least that is how it used to be.  Now they are not so inclined to move out of the way.  They will look at you with furtive glances, on their toes ready to run if you make a fast movement towards them, but if you move slowly they will continue about their business just maintaining a wary watch.  It could well be that after so many years of being watched in this fashion that they have become familiarized with their human observers and no longer perceive them as an immediate threat.

A Touch Too Much

The sun is setting, its last red glowing rays now only picking out the top of the trees, creating the illusion that the canopy is on fire.  You grab your flashlight knowing that the fire will rapidly fade into the burnt-out embers of dark red and ultimately dampened into darkness.  With this darkness an awakening occurs, creatures of the night are beginning to emerge.  Before all becomes blackness, the silhouettes of bats can be seen against the sky, leaving their daytime roosts to feed on all manner of food.  Here the bats feast on a sumptuous banquet, each of the 80 species on the Osa Peninsula having its own preferred diet.  There are insectivorous bats, nectar-feeding bats, fruit-eating bats, carnivorous bats, fish-eating bats and yes, even blood-feeding bats, the vampires.

In the background, the plaintive whistle of a Great Tinamou can be heard, its three ascending sad notes announce that the day has ended and the night has begun.  As if on a collective cue, the insects start to call.  The soft but rhythmic pulsating sound of katydids and crickets fills the still nighttime air.  The shrill call of parrots and macaws fill the darkening sky as they pass overhead returning to their nightly roosts.  Now, adding to the white noise of the insect symphony comes the call of the amphibians.  They have been tucked away, hidden during the day from the harsh and drying effects of the sun’s rays, not good for creatures that breath through a delicate moist skin.  But as the air cools it becomes damper, perfect for males to begin to emerge, set up a territorial platform and start to call.  If he is lucky, a female will be attracted to the tone of his voice, oblivious to our ears, but sweet music to hers conveying the potential genetic quality that she would wish for her offspring.  Finally the deep roars from the male Howler Monkeys as they settle down for the evening are telling you it is time to venture out.

You step out into the darkness, flashlight up by your eye scanning the area immediately in front of you looking for eyeshine.  You are familiar with the various colors and the distinctive way the eyes of different animals reflect back at you.  There is something.  Fiery orange eyes on the ground, it blinks so it is not a snake, it hops up and down and then it calls and flies off.  That you could identify quite easily as one of the nighthawks, a Common Paureque, (Nyctidromus albicollis). Now over there in a tree, more bright orange eyes staring down at you.  You walk over to see what might be observing you.  Before you get close enough to make out its form it calls, a Spectacled owl.  It opens its wings, leans into the night and silently slips away, gliding like a feathered phantom into the blackness.  So not a bad start to the evening.

There are diamonds sparkling everywhere, on the ground, in the vegetation, all colors, red, orange silver, green and blue.  Anything with a diamond sparkle eyeshine you know is a spider and there are hundreds, no thousands of spiders, in whichever direction you look.  Most of them are little more than the size of a pinhead.

Your free hand is resting on the low branch of a tree sticking out horizontally from the trunk at about hip level.  You are glaring into the tangled vegetation in front of you looking for some of the amphibian choristers that you hear calling when you feel something lightly brush against your hand.  You don’t retract you grasp quickly but rather gingerly lift your hand away and turn the flashlight in the direction of where it was resting.  There you see the creature that had inadvertently made contact with you before withdrawing.  Its body is large and hairy, it has eight stout and hirsute legs.  Your pulse races and a bead of sweat rolls down by your eye from your brow.  It could be due to the heat of the night but it is probably because you are looking at a tarantula.

Tarantula. Rainforest Spider. Mygalomorphae. Therasophidae.

Unidentified Tarantula species in the Costa Rican rainforest

Tarantulas And The Dance Of Death

Now mistakenly putting your hand on a tarantula in the dark would increase the heart rate of most people but like so many other maligned creatures, the poor tarantula has a reputation it does not deserve and nor can it live up to.   Despite their size and grotesquely fearsome appearance, tarantulas are shy and mostly harmless creatures.  They are however venomous and a large, hairy, many-legged venomous arthropod is generally going to suffer bad press amongst their misinformed human observers.

Costa Rican Tarantulas. Mygalomorphae. Theraphosidae. Tarantula.

A rather shy Tarantula does not want its picture taken

Venom is a complex cocktail and quite often it can be very different and peculiar to different types of spiders depending upon their preferred dietary prey species.  Once a spider catches its prey, the victim must be rendered immobile very rapidly, especially if it is not caught in a web and then swaddled in restraining silk.  Most venoms therefore contain fast-acting metabolic toxins that kill or paralyze the prey rapidly.  In this respect, tarantula venom is very weak and does not have much effect on humans but it will kill dogs.  Spiders do not have mouthparts capable of mastication so essentially they have to drink soup, that soup being the digested internal organs of their prey.  The venom contains proteolytic enzymes that break down and liquidize the tissues so that the spider can suck up the rich protein meal and finish the process of digestion within its own alimentary canal.

So why does the tarantula have a reputation of being so dangerous.  The story has its origins in a city located in mediaeval southern Italy called Taranto.  Here lives a wolf spider, (Lycosa tarantula), one bite from which would drive the victim into a state of frenzied madness more commonly known as tarantism.  The unfortunate sufferer was prone to dizziness, vomiting and a heightened sensitivity that compelled them to lose all inhibitions and dance in a wild state of abandon trying to release themselves from the effects of the venom.

Due to these effects, it has been suggested that the spider responsible was Latrodectus tresdecimguttatus, closely related to Black Widow of the U.S.A and the Red-back Spider of Australia.  It may well have been that in a mediaeval Italy gripped by religious fervor that most cases of tarantism were little more than the result of a pious mass hysteria and not a spider induced dance of death.  However the story travelled with European settlers to tropical America and from thereon  the poor tarantula was saddled with the name and its resulting reputation from its smaller, deadlier European cousins.

Tarantula. Mygalomorphae. Theraphosidae.

Tarantula sp – look closely and you can see the fang-tipped chelicerae

The tarantula in these photographs was found last week on the grounds here.  It was not very co-operative and shied away from having its picture taken.  When I tried to get a close-up on the fangs, it pulled all of its legs up against the body.  I did manage to get low down and in front to get an image that if you look closely reveals the two fangs, which in the case of tarantulas are parallel to each other and face forwards.

Small But Deadly

Talking of smaller spiders, there is one species I see commonly around the buildings of the area that could be quite easy to miss.  It prefers dark corners where two walls meet at right-angles.  It is dark ruddy-brown and spends the day with its legs tucked up under the body.  The web is little more than a few silken strands strung between the two wall faces.  What draws your attention is not the spider itself but the size of prey it captures and consumes.  I quite regularly see everything from large kaydids, beetles and moths dangling helplessly from the sticky diaphanous cords as a tiny spider cautiously approaches to deliver the coup de grace.

Although I do not profess to being an expert with regards to spiders, (nor with anything in fact), I think these tiny assassins belong to the family: Theridiidae, which includes the notorious Black Widow, (Lacrodectus mactans).  The venom of the spiders in this family is highly neurotoxic which would explain why prey so much larger than the spider rapidly succumb to its bite.  I don’t know anyone who has been bitten by one of these individuals I commonly find lurking in places like bathrooms and have no great desire to try and find out for myself.

Tangle-web Spider. Araneidae. Araneae. Theridiidae.

Tangle-web Spider female guarding egg cocoon

The individual in the photograph sat guarding a grey sac for many days.  This is the egg cocoon.  She will mate with a male then lay her eggs which she will wrap in silk in order to protect them against the environment and parasites.  When these ones hatched I would see them swarming all over a prey item along with the mother.  I never saw her wrap a victim in silk, they just remained suspended in death pose from the strands upon which they had initially and unfortunately become caught.

Choking On A Poisoned Thorn

One more spider that I found last week in the gardens is so distinctive that it can be identified immediately, at least to genus level.  This is one of the Spiny-bodied Spiders, (Micrathena sp).  They are small but tend to be dressed in bright and contrasting colors so you should not have too much trouble finding them if you are diligent in your searching.  They are orb-weavers but the web, just as its maker, is relatively small.  Spiny-bodied Spiders are more commonly found in the open areas rather that within the depths of the forest.  Their webs can be found strung between the twigs and branches of bushes and small trees.

Once you have located one of the Spiny-bodied Spiders you will quickly appreciate why is bears that name.  The rear of the abdomen is drawn out into two long vicious-looking thorns at the base of which are two shorter spines.  The dorsal surface of the abdomen has a pair of upward pointing spines while the ventral surface has one downward pointing spike.  This whole appearance is not an appetizing prospect for a potential predator.  The coloration of bright vivid primary colors against darker background colors actually make the spider stand out in contrast to its surroundings.  If it is visibly obvious then it is patently not trying to hide.  It is using warning, (aposomatic), coloration to advertise its presence to a predator.

Spiny-bodied Spider. Araneidae. Araneae. Micrathena sp. Rainforest Spiders

The spines covering its body are a clue to the naming of the Spiny-bodied Spider, (Micrathena sp)

Should a naïve predator such as a bird or lizard ignore that warning signal and try to feed on the spider, those thorns and spines will lodge it in the unfortunate creature’s mouth from which it is very difficult to displace.  The spider meanwhile produces a noxious secretion that tastes foul and the hapless predator, rather than relishing a tasty meal, is now stuck with spiny vile dietary experience.  One the spider is dislodged, the predator will never, ever go near anything sporting aposomatic colors again.

Shadowy Parasites – Not Green And Not Seen

While walking the trails I found a weird little plant that could easily be mistaken for a fungal fruiting body.  It grows from the ground with a short fleshy stalk holding up the flowering head.  The overall color is the same as the ground, a ruddy-brown, there is no green to be seen.  In appearance it looks like no other flowering plant.  It contains no chlorophyll because it is an obligative parasite.  It taps into the roots of trees from where it extracts all its nutritional requirements.  This is Helosis cayennensis of the family: Balanophoraceae.  They can be found in northern and southern hemisphere tropics.

Parasitic plants. Balanophoraceae. Rainforest plants. Helosis cayennensis

Strange acorn-shaped inflorescence of Helosis cayennensis

The main body of the plant is an amorphous underground tuber attached to the root it is parasitizing.  The flower head produces both male and female flowers both of which are small in size.  Quite often they can be found in large clusters, especially this time of year, the wet season, growing out from the base of the tree they are sucking the life from.

Balanophoraceae. Helosis cayennensis. Parasitic rainforest plants

No green to be seen – the parasitic Helosis cayennensis

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

Spiders: The Eighth Level of Diversity   2 comments


Wildlife, nature, fauna and flora of Costa Rica.

The rainfall of April, May and June from 2016 was more or less exactly the same in terms of monthly totals for the same periods in 2107 but this week has proved to be very wet.  The rain has been incessant, both day and night with very little of the sun having been seen.  A total of 15 inches rain fell and now the creek is running quite fast, so no water problems this year.

Spiders:  Not Everyone’s Favorite

I have to admit that many people I take out would rather just walk straight past spiders and ignore their presence.  Some people, despite their revulsion, are intrigued by their natural history, they are, after all, fascinating creatures.  I find them interesting to observe, understand and photograph.  They are mini carnivores with a wealth of different life histories.  They are also ubiquitous, they can be found just about anywhere on the planet, (apart from maybe Antarctica), and in abundance.  It is often stated that at no point in your life are you any more than six feet away from a spider and I can demonstrate the proof of that fact quite adequately every evening when I take people on the night walk.

There are approximately 40,000 species of spider distributed worldwide which makes them the eighth most numerously named group of animals on the planet.  Although they are all, (apart from possibly one species), carnivores and use venom to subdue and kill their prey, they are not dangerous to humans expect for those well documented species, the numbers of which you could count on the fingers of your hands.

Spiders divide up into two broad groups.  The first group are the Tarantulas, Trapdoor Spiders, Funnel-web Spiders and the Purse-web Spiders.  The second group are all other spiders and they are subdivided depending of the mode of food capture.  There are the Web Weavers; those spiders that produce the familiar silken webs but those webs also come in different forms.  There are Orb-web weavers, Sheet-web Weavers, Tangle-web Weavers and Lace-web Weavers.  Then there are Ambush Spiders such as Crab Spiders as well as Wolf Spides, Huntsman Spiders, Lynx Spiders, Fishing Spiders, Spitting Spiders, Jumping Spiders, Woodlouse Hunters and Wandering Spiders.  All in all, if there is a way of catching prey, then spiders have it covered.

A Living Tetrahedron

I noticed this spider last week crossing the road in front of me.  The bright yellow coloration was in marked contrast to the grey grit across which it was scurrying.  As I bent down to take the photograph, the spider went into a defensive posture and tucked its legs up against the body.  This made it easy for me but gives it a somewhat unnatural pose.  I think this individual must have fallen from an overhanging tree branch, maybe escaping becoming a meal for a larger animal.  Being bright yellow might work to disguise it amongst foliage but not against the dark grey of the road surface.

Rainforest arachnid. Rainforest areneae. Costa Rica spider.

The strange tetrahedron shaped body of this unidentified spider

You can gauge how small the creature was by the size of the grit next to it which is only about 1mm across.  When looked at close-up though you can see the spider is remarkably shaped.  The body is drawn up into an almost polygonal shape, a tetrahedron, rounded along its edges.  There are raised red nodules along the rear edge.  You would think that these would make it an easy spider to identify, but no such luck.  Extensive searching has not provided an I.D.  I would hazard a guess that it is one of the many tropical orb-weavers.  If anyone has a name I would be very grateful to receive it.

A Silver Orb in the Sun

Further down the road, in an open sunny area I saw a large web with the weaver sitting in the center, its eight legs forming a cross of four pairs.  Because of its location I could not get around to the opposite side to get a dorsal view so had to settle for the ventral view.

This species I had seen before, on numerous occasions.  This was a Silver-orb Spider, (Argiope argentata).  The fluting of the body rim along with the black and yellow tiger striping of the legs are examples of disruptive form and coloration which serve to make the creature less spider-like.  It is an effective form of camouflage used throughout the animal kingdom.

Rainforest Silver-orb Spider. Rainforest animals. Argiope argentata Costa Rica. Spider web. Spider silk.

Ventral view of a Silver-orb Spider, (Argiope argentata)

The web itself is constructed from silken threads.  Silk is an amazing material and deserves a book devoted solely to that subject.  Silk is both elastic and strong.  Orb-weavers can produce upto five different kinds of silk, each variety having a different use.  Silk is produced as a liquid in the silk glands, it is then secreted from the spinnerets where it is drawn out by the hind legs into the long threads.

To construct the web, the spider first has to create a framework of threads radiating from the center.  Then starting on the outside, it spins a spiral thread, round and around towards the center.  The spiral silk is coated in a sticky hygroscopic glue which serves to catch any prey item unfortunate enough to fly or fall into it.  The elasticity of the threads takes out the kinetic energy of an impacting large flying insect and stops the web from breaking.  Silver-orb Spiders are fairly large and consequently so are their webs.  They are reasonably common in the area so it does not take too much effort to find them.

Hidden Death Dealer in the Flowerheads

Sometime ago I noticed a butterfly behaving in a very strange way on one of the Lantana flowerheads.  Further investigation revealed the butterfly was dead and the unusual movement was being caused by it being manipulated within the legs of a small but efficient killer, a Crab-spider.

Crab spiders are small squat spiders and receive their name due to their ability to walk sideways as well as forwards and backwards.  They are ambush predators.  Some have the capability of changing color over a period of weeks to match that of the flower where they are sitting and waiting for a prey item to land.  In this case the victim was a White-banded Fatima (Anartia fatima).

Rainforest Crab Spider. Unidentified Thomisidae sp Costa Rica.

Unidentified Crab Spider captures, kills and eats White-banded Fatima

The butterfly would have been totally unaware of the lethal assassin’s presence.  As soon as it landed to take a feed of nectar, the longer and stronger front two pairs of spider legs would have grabbed it.  The butterfly’s wings would have been beating frantically but taking flight was no longer possible.  At the same time, a powerful venom would have been injected through the spiders fangs into the butterfly’s body killing it almost immediately.  The spider holds on until the venom has done its work.  The wings stop beating and the now lifeless butterfly is motionless.  Digestive enzymes injected with the venom liquidize the butterfly’s innards which the spider will then suck out as a soup.  It will then let the dry and drained husk of the victim fall to the ground.

To find crab spiders you have to search diligently among the flower heads.  Sitting patiently without moving and having the same color as their ambush position makes them difficult to spot.  Sometimes the only clue to their presence is the telltale sign of strange behavioral anomalies of their victims.

Rainforest Crab spider. Thomisidae Costa Rica. Rainforest animals. Rainforest Spiders.

Death hidden by beauty. Crab Spider waits at tip of a flower for a meal to arrive

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

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