Archive for the ‘Stingless Bee’ Tag

Beetles: The Dominance of Diversity   Leave a comment


Wildlife, nature, fauna and flora of Costa Rica.

Long-horned Heavyweights

Beetles and bugs are two groups of insects that can be both fascinating and frustrating at one and he same time.  There are so many of them in terms of species and they come is so many varieties of shape and color that it really does take an expert to identify them and even then they may find themselves sorely taxed to do so.

I am always happy if I can manage to identify a beetle to species level, bugs are not so hard until you get to the individual species.  I tend, therefore, to enjoy them for what they are, interesting subjects to photograph.  Once I have posted the photograph into the public domain if someone can kindly offer up a name I am always grateful.

This beetle was found by my cabin one day last week.  I did not think it would stay to have its picture take but fortunately it duly obliged.  It was a quite a striking creature at over 2 inches long with bold markings of yellow bars on the ruddy-brown wing cases.  The antennae were distinctive, being long, black and curved upwards and outwards.

Coleoptyera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae, Callipogon lemoinei. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

The Giant Brown Callipogon, (Callipogon lemoinei)

At approximately 320,000, the total number of beetle species on the planet is the equivalent of all known named species of plants.  They constitute over 30% of all known animal life.  In Panama alone, 11,410 species of beetle were found on 70 species of tree.  So you get the idea that there are a lot of different species of beetle and that is just the named species.  Beetles can be found in just about every habitat from forests, deserts and fresh water.  The beetle I was looking at belonged to the family: Cerambycidae or long-horned beetles, (due to the length of the antennae), which is one of the larger families within the order: Coleoptera.  There are 2,200 species of long-horns found in Costa Rica, (1,100 species in the U.S.A.).  I knew it belonged to the Tooth-necked Long Horn subfamily: Prioninae.  I even knew the species, the Giant Brown Callipogon, (Callipogon lemoinei).

Giant Brown Callipogon. Long-horned Beetle. Philip Davison

Look at the wood-munching mandibles of the Giant Brown Callipogon

Some long-horns do not eat in the adult stage but most do and those that do all feed on a variety of plant material.  Those powerful and savage-looking mandibles will allow them to munch their way through the toughest material plants produce.  They are the most important group of beetle pollinators and some of them can be seen visiting flowers where they consume both nectar and pollen.  The larvae feed on dead wood and are a serious pest to the timber industry by damaging recently felled lumber before it reaches the saw mill.

The Prioninae males tend to have longer antennae than the females.  They sit on leaves, antennae extended waiting to pick up a pheromone trail given off by a sexually receptive female.  The females use the heavy-duty mandibles to chew the wood of a branch which kills the distal portion into which she will then deposit her eggs.  Those people with exceptionally good ears can hear the branch being rendered dead from several meters away.

All in all I was happy not only to have found the beetle but also that I actually knew what this one was, (the odds are normally against me), and I managed to get some decent photographs.

Coleoptera. Tooth-necked Long-horned Beetle. Beetles of the world.

Giant Brown Callipogon male waiting to pick up the scent of a female

Bugged by Bees

The cashews, (Anacardium occidentale), have all but finished fruiting.  There are one or two cashew apples left hanging from the branches with their distinctive fruits suspended beneath them.  As I walked past one of the smaller cashew trees I noticed a bug sitting amongst the leaves.  While not being anywhere near as diverse in numbers as the beetles, the true bugs of the order: Hemiptera are every bit as diverse in form.

This one belonged to the suborder: heteroptera, as was evidenced by the divided wing, papery at the end and solid at the base.  This one also had a diagnostically distinctive feature in that the rear pair of legs were flattened and expanded leaving you in no doubt that it belonged to the family: Coreidae, commonly known as the squash bugs or leaf-legged bugs.  A few of the squash bugs are predatory carnivores but most of them are herbivores.  The mouthparts are modified into a long piercing proboscis which is held along the underside of the head and is used to suck sap from the vascular system of plants.

Hemiptera. Heteroptera. Coreidae. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

Unidentified Leaf-legged Bug, (Coreidae sp), found in a cashew tree

The bug was not the only imbiber of cashew juice.  On one of the fruits, the swollen meristem or cashew apple, had been damaged and the soft tissue was attracting a small group of stingless bees, (Trigona sp).  Before the introduction of the honey bee, (Apis mellifera), from Europe the main source of honey in the New World was that produced by the stingless bees.  The bees nest in cavities within hollow trees.  The nests can be recognized not only by the presence of the bees themselves but also the entrance to the hidden nest has a long resinous tube sticking out horizontally.

As benign as stingless may sound these bees are not to be trifled with.  Anyone approaching too close to the nest and being perceived as a threat is in for a nasty surprise.  They attack an aggressor in numbers and they are committed to the defense of the nest.  They fly furiously up the nose, into the ears, into the eyes and swarm into the hair all the time biting ferociously, some of them rubbing in a caustic secretion which burns.  Little wonder that their Spanish name of Carafagos translates into Spitfires.

Thankfully the ones I was looking at were more concerned with enjoying their free cashew smoothie than my presence.  Not even the flash from the camera elicited the slightest response.

Hymenoptera. Apidae. Trigona sp. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

Little black Spitfires – Stingless Bees, (Trigona sp), drinking the juice of a cashew fruit

A Natural Mashup

Another one of the native Costas has come into bloom throughout the gardens and forests of the area over the past week.  The wild ginger, (Costus laevis), is native to the wet forests of Central and South America and is the commonest of the costas in the wet forests of the Osa Peninsula.

It has a smaller flowering spike with green bracts from which the deep orange and purple striped, yellow-lipped flower emerges.  The principal pollinator of Costus laevis are the females of the orchid bee, (Euglossa imperialis), which have a very long proboscis to probe deep into the flower.  Should the bloom be visited by hummingbirds then pollination is not accomplished.

Costus laevis also has extra floral nectaries which provide a food source for a large variety of ant species.  In return for a feed of nectar the ants protect the plant, probably from the attention of would be seed predators.

Costaceae. Costus laevis. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

Native Wild Ginger, (Costus laevis), the bloom of which is pollinated by orchid bees

The damp conditions of the forest prevalent at this time of year allow the fungi to continually produce fruiting bodies.  As I have mentioned in previous blogs, the identity of most fungi must remain a mystery, not unlike most beetles.  But they can still be appreciated for their exotic shapes and color as well as their ephemeral presence.

One very short-lived mushroom is that of the Pleated Inkcap, (Parasola plicatilis).  Early in the morning just before sunrise, the small white cap makes its way up out of the soil and through the grass.  It opens into a miniature white umbrella and sheds its spores from gills on the undersurface into the air.  Within a short space of time the job is done and the cap continues to evert until all that is left is a delicate translucent umbrella that has almost been turned inside out.

Parasola plicatilis. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

The delicate and spent mushroom of the Pleated Inkcap, (Parasola plicatilis)

There is no mistaking the very distinctive form of the literally described Orange-cup Fungus, (Cookeina speciosa).  Like small flame-colored goblets set on the forest floor for a faerie revel they stand out against the dead wood on which the mycelium is growing.  Unlike the inkcap, the Orange-cup Fungus produces its spores from the surface of the cup lining.  This time of year the forest floor is decorated throughout by these compelling little structures.

Cookeina speciosa. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica

The unmistakable and literally described fruiting body of the Orange-cup Fungus, (Cookeina speciosa)

Another bright orange fungus found growing on dead wood but this time in the form of semi-circular brackets is the Beauty Fungus, (Hymenochaete luteo-badia).  The vibrant orange striped shelf is bordered by a vivid yellow edging.  The spores are produced in pores on the ventral surface.

Hymenochaete luteo-badia. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

Beauty Fungus, (Hymenochaete luteo-badia)

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

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Passionately Spitting Fire   1 comment


Felipe del Bosque Blog January 23rd 2012

Brittle Nut Crunch

The dry season is continuing without a drop of rain.  The temperatures are now in the upper 90’s but unfortunately my thermometer has finally given up the ghost and I will have to replace it to get the daily highs and lows.

Unlike temperate forests or tropical dry forests where the trees are deciduous and shed all of their leaves at the beginning a temperate autumn or the start of a tropical dry season,  tropical wet forest trees are broad leaved evergreen and keep their leaves all year round.

At this time of year the trees start to shed leaf and replace the old leaves with new growth.  The forest floor is now cracked and dry as well as being covered by fallen leaves which are brittle and crunchy underfoot.

The trees here however do not replace leaf one at a time but rather as a flush.  If the tree produces a tender young leaf, high in protein, low in fiber and with no defensive toxins to protect it, that leaf will be eaten immediately by one of the vast number of herbivores in the forest and so the tree will have lost 100% of its leaf production.  If, on the other hand, the tree produces 1000 new leaves and 100 are eaten, it has only lost 10% of its leaf production.  Also the trees synchronize their leaf production so the amount of new foliage is spread throughout a greater number of individuals and so the tree is less likely to lose some of its own leaf.  That is what we find happening now.  The forest canopy is currently a blend of every shade of green imaginable – more than the 40 shades covering O’Rafferty’s wonderful motorcar.

A Passion for Flowers

The flowering of plants here is a little more subtle than in higher latitudes where you might get those amazing expanses of flowering meadow or cornfields.  Even in temperate forests, in the spring before the trees leaf up again, you will get the forest floor carpeted with Bluebells, Foxgloves and Wood Sorrel.

Here in the tropics it is the trees that are the major flowering plants and their blooms occur 100 feet above the ground up in the canopy.  This provides a spectacular display for anyone flying down to Bosque from San Jose this time of year.

Nonetheless there are flowers to be found at the lower level of the forest and some of them are not so subtle.  The Passion Vine, (Passiflora vitifolia), produces unmistakable bright scarlet blooms.  Their vivid color and perfume attract hummingbird pollinators.  The inner ring of upward pointing spines prevents all but the hermit hummingbirds which have long bills from taking the nectar.  The flowers open in the morning but by late afternoon have been pollinated then close and wilt with the setting sun.

Passiflora vitifolia

Red Hot Pokers

There is another distinctive flame orange flowering spike that will be seen in the sunnier areas as you walk through the forest.  These belong to a plant endemic to the area, Aphelandra golfodulcensis.  You won’t find this plant anywhere else in the world, just here on the Osa Peninsula.  Just as the Passion Vine flower, the bright red serves to attract in hummingbirds.

Aphelandra golfodulcensis

The Aphelandra flower is an erect spike which has up to 48 flowers and every day it produces one or two new blooms.  These are long and scimitar in shape with an opening at the end.  They have a specific pollinator, once again the hummingbirds with the long, thin, curved, sickle-shaped bills.  In this area there are two common species; the Long-billed Hummingbird, (Phaethornis longirostris), and the Stripe-throated Hummingbird, (Phaethornis strigularis).  The hummingbirds hover in front of the flower, insert the bill, imbibe the nectar during which time the bill gets coated with pollen, they fly off to repeat the process thereby pollinating the plants.  Like the Passion Flower, they flowers open and in the morning and wilt before dusk.

Who Pays The Piper

The family Piperacae contains well known plants such as Peppers, (which originate in South East Asia), and in these forests the Candlestick Plants.  They are named after the flowers which stand erect and resemble an unlit candle.  The Candlestick plants are pollinated by insects, namely beetles.  Subsequently fruit eating bats arrive, feed on the small fruits, then fly off and defecate thereby dispersing the seeds.

Dragonfly

If you go down to any of the Bosque ponds during the day, particularly if the sun is shining brightly, you are bound to see dragonflies.  These formidable predators with their almost ceaseless activity hunt insect prey using their acute vision afforded them with those huge eyes.

Dragonfly

The males tend to be more brightly colored than the females and it is that striking coloration that initially attracts the eye.  The females, although not as brilliant as their opposite sex partners, when seen in isolation are still quite dazzling.  This female I saw in a forest clearing.  I wasn’t out to photograph dragonflies but there she was at head height in the sun so I couldn’t pass up the opportunity.

Philip is a biologist, writer and photographer as well as the onsite naturalist guide at Bosque del Cabo Rainforest lodge on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

www.bosquedelcabo.com

 Photo Feature

Mini Spitfires

There are many species of bee in Costa Rica and for the most part they are solitary bees.  Honey Bees are a species introduced from Europe for honey production and are therefore alien.  Many of the indigenous peoples in the Americans prefer the honey of the native social bees and here on the grounds of Bosque it is possible to see an occasional strange structure that reveals the location of the nest.

Stingless Bee

For some time now, on the Zapatero Trail, when I stop to let visitors take in the full sight of a rain forest we can seep projecting from the trunk of a large Milky Tree the distinctive tell tale tube that leads to the nest of a stingless bee species.

Stingless Bee

The Stingless Bees have a social system essentially the same as the Honey Bees consisting of foraging females returning to the nest with pollen and nectar for honey production to feed the developing brood.  They have the same method of information transfer using the “waggle dance”.

Stingless Bee

The nest is constructed within a cavity, generally inside a tree but any cavity will do, including the carcass of a dead animal.   Leading from the outside into the nesting chamber is a long tube, the composition of which is waxes and resins collected by the foraging bees from different plant sources.  If you wound a tree and a resinous wax leaks out, it will not be too long before the bees arrive to harvest the serendipitous find.

The bees may not be armed with a painful sting as are their European relatives but they are not to be trifled with.  If you disturb the nest they attack in a wild frenzy, biting your hair, flying into your eyes, nose and ears, there they will bite and some rub a caustic secretion into the bite burning you.  They are not known by the native people as “little spit fires” for nothing.

In Mayan and Aztec culture, tributes of honey from these bees were often demanded by the local ruling chiefs.  Not only was the honey used as food but also as medicine.

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming book:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

Temperature and Rainfall

Average Daily Rainfall 0.00 ins.  Total Weekly Rainfall 0.00 ins

Average Daily Rainfall 0.00 mm.  Total Weekly Rainfall 0.00 mm

Species List for the Week

Mammals

  • Howler Monkey
  • Spider Monkey
  • Squirrel Monkey
  • White-faced Monkey
  • Tent-making Bats
  • Nine-banded Armadillo
  • Northern Tamandua
  • Mexican Mouse Opossum
  • White-nosed Coati
  • Agouti
  • Red-tailed Squirrel
  • Vesper Rat

Birds

  • Red-lored Amazon
  • Scarlet Macaws
  • Great Curassow
  • Mangrove Black Hawk
  • Roadside Hawk
  • Pale-billed Woodpecker
  • Black-hooded Antshrike
  • Chestnut-backed Antbird
  • Common Paureque
  • Crested Owl
  • Short-billed Pigeon
  • White-tipped Dove
  • Brown Pelican
  • Long-billed Hermit
  • Chestnut-mandibled Toucan
  • Red-capped Manakin
  • Gray-headed Tanager
  • Bright-rumped Atilla
  • Dusky-capped Flycatcher
  • Great Kiskadee
  • Great Tinamou
  • Black-throated Trogon
  • Black Vulture
  • Turkey Vulture

Reptiles

  • Barred Ameiva
  • Cat-eyed Snake
  • Common Basilisk
  • Clawless Gecko
  • Golfo Dulce Anolis

Amphibians

  • Banana Frog
  • Marine Toad
  • Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Black and Green Poison Arrow Frog
  • Fitzinger’s Rain Frog
  • Masked Smilisca
  • Smokey Jungle Frog
  • Stejneger’s Dirt Frog

Butterflies

  • Anartia Fatima
  • Anartia jatrophae
  • Antirrhea philoctetes
  • Caligo eurilochus
  • Calycopis isobeon
  • Cithaeria pireta
  • Colobura dirce
  • Consul fabius
  • Dione juno
  • Dryas iulia
  • Eurema albula
  • Eurema daira
  • Glutophrissa drusilla
  • Heliconius erato
  • Heliconius hecale
  • Heliconius ismenius
  • Heliconius sapho
  • Heraclides cresphontes
  • Hermeuptychia hermes
  • Marpesia berania
  • Morpho helenor
  • Morpho Menelaus
  • Opsiphanes tamarindi
  • Pareuptychia ocirrhoe
  • Philaetria dido
  • Pierella luna
  • Pyrgus oileus
  • Pyrisitia nise
  • Pyrrhogyra crameri
  • Siproeta stelenes

 Plants

  • Aphelandra golfodulcensis Flowering
  • Bamboo Orchid Flowering
  • Black Alligator Tree Fruiting
  • Calabash flowering and fruiting
  • Cannonball Tree Flowering and Fruiting
  • Clusia rosea Flowering
  • Garlic Tree Flowering
  • Golden Fruit Tree Fruiting
  • Milky Tree Fruiting
  • Monkey Comb Tree Flowering and Fruiting
  • Figs Fruiting
  • Mountain Rose Flowering
  • Ox Eye Vine Fruit
  • Stinky Toe Fruiting

 

Bees Whose Bite is Worse Than Their Sting   Leave a comment


Felipe del Bosque Blog June 19th 2011

More of the Same

The weather continues to stay settled with bright, dry days and a little rain at night.  We are experiencing an occasional daytime shower but nothing like the torrential rains from the beginning of the rainy season.  Hopefully things will continue in this fashion until September when we will be expecting heavier rain of longer duration.

For the moment, all unstable vegetation seems to have already fallen.  That is not to say there will be no further tree falls over the coming months, but there have been no more large trees bite the dust, (that should be, wet forest floor), over the past week.

A team of experts were called in to cut up those unfortunate trees that were standing in the path of the giant Milky Tree that fell last week.  Even though the Milky Tree itself had little value in terms of lumber, the others did.  They were cut up in situ and the planking was then taken to be stored in the wood yard for future construction projects.

Counting By Numbers

People who study ants are known as myrmecologists and there are not too many of them.  Most of the visitors to the forests that encompass Bosque del Cabo did not realize before they arrived that they would be leaving having become enamored by the fascinating world of ants.  For those ant fans out there, at the moment, the ants are out in force.  During the dry season it is not always easy to view the flowing green rivers of freshly cut leaf being carried by none other than the Leaf-cutter Ants.  During the dry season they tend to work at transporting the leaf material back to the nest after the sun has set.  But now, when there is a break in the rain, any of the trails at Bosque will provide you with ample opportunity to marvel at this incredible spectacle.

Another type of ant, whose presence can be equally as obvious, is the Army Ant.  There are several different species of Army Ant in the area and to the untrained eye they may look to be one and the same.  Whether they are larger or smaller, they have the same characteristic habit of moving in a congested column and always with purpose.  Unlike the Leaf-cutter Ants which are mycovores, (fungus eaters), the Army Ants are strictly carnivores.  Over the past week, I have been able to show people the feeder columns heading back to the bivouac, (they don’t have an established nest, they are nomads).  With close scrutiny you can see a huge amount of dismembered arthropods being taken into the bivouac to feed the larvae.  On occasion we will happen across a foraging front over 60 feet across, moving across the forest floor and dispatching anything small enough that did not have time to move out of the way.

The Comfort Zone

On the site of the “Killer Wasp” attack from a few weeks ago, we now have a new resident, something a little more tranquil by nature, a female Long-billed Hummingbird.  She has chosen the underside of a leaf from a palm just to the side of the kitchen, behind the reception, to build her nest.  The nest is still under construction.  If you look closely you will see the strands of spider silk she has used to fix the nest to the leaf.  Following the addition of each new piece, the female then sits inside to try it out, with the bill facing the underside of the leaf.  She appears to be in a most uncomfortable looking position but it is how she will stay while incubating the eggs.  Hopefully I will get more photographs as the nest is completed.  There have been Long-billed Hummingbird nests in the same area, different leaves, in the past.  Their proximity to a busy human though fare does not appear to deter them.

Long-billed Hummingbird Nest

What Katydid

On one of the nightly “Sunset Tours” this week, I saw an unusual looking Katydid sitting on a leaf of the Calabash Trees.  There is nothing unusual about seeing an unusual looking Katydid as many of them display strange morphological characteristics.  There are a great many Katydids that have evolved to resemble various plant parts.  The Pseudoleaf Katydids in particular are intriguing creatures.  This one resembled nothing I had ever seen before.  The wings were raised up above its back which brought to mind the prehistoric Dimetrodon.  The color of the katydid was a mix of cryptic browns and grays that I can only imagine would blend in with the background color of the tree bark.

Katydid       Katydid       Katydid

Katydid

Philip is a biologist, writer and photographer as well as the onsite naturalist guide at Bosque del Cabo Rainforest lodge on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

www.bosquedelcabo.com

 Photo Feature

Blooming Orchids and Stingless Bees

Over recent weeks, while taking guests out on tour through the primary forest, I noticed an orchid that had been growing on the side of a tree for many years had started to produce flower buds.  This particular orchid had flowered every year and this year I kept a watch for bud development as I knew that the flowers would soon follow.  Over the course of a few days the flower buds lengthened and then on this day as I walked past, there were the flowers.  So after lunch it was back on the same trail with camera to get the images.

Stanhopea cirrhata

The orchid is a Tendril Stanhopea, (Stanhopea cirrhata).  It is a Neotropical orchid of which there are 55 species, 3 occurring in Costa Rica, but only one on the Osa Peninsula.  Stanhopea orchids are normally found in cooler climes, but Stanhopea cirrhata prefers growing exactly where this one is; in tropical lowland wet forest, low down on a branch in a less sunny location and close to the creek.  The flowers occur as a pair and give off a very sweet fragrance which not surprisingly attracts in male Orchid Bees, which are the plants main pollinators.  When I arrived to take the photograph, there was an Orchid Bee hovering in front but it did not wait for me to capture its image for later identification.

Stanhopea cirrhata

There had been some other bees that I had taken a mental note to return and photograph on the same trail as the orchids.  A few weeks previous I saw a swarm of brilliant orange/yellow bees gathering on plant leaves, close to the ground, at the base of a Milky Tree.  Following their appearance, over the course a week or so, a long waxy tube started to form from a crevice in the tree.  The tube was reddy orange in color, and extended 6 inches or more horizontally from the tree trunk.  These were one of the species of Stingless Bees, (Tetragonisca angustula).  The color of the tube depends upon the type of flowers that the bees have visited.  Incorporated into the wax you may also find mud and plant fibres.

They may be stingless but they can certainly bite and hard too.  They are renowned for their tenacity, swarming on mass into the mouths, ears and nose of those who antagonized them.  Some species as they bite release caustic secretions which burn.

Stingless Bees

Before the introduction of the European Honey Bee, Stingless Bees were the main source of honey for the indigenous peoples of Costa Rica and many of them still prefer Stingless Bee honey.  The honey itself has been clinically proved to have an antibiotic property.  You have to be careful which bees you are using though as some of them make a honey poisonous to humans.

Text and Photographs are taken from the forthcoming book:

The Natural History of Bosque del Cabo by Philip Davison

Temperature and Rainfall

Average Daily Temp High 83°F.  Average Daily Temp Low 74°F.

Average Daily Rainfall 0.33 ins.  Total Weekly Rainfall 2.28 ins

Average Daily Temp High 27.9°C.  Average Daily Temp Low 23.1°C.

Average Daily Rainfall 8.3 mm.  Total Weekly Rainfall 57.9 mm

Species List for the Week

Mammals

  • Howler Monkey
  • Spider Monkey
  • Capuchin Monkey
  • Red-tailed Squirrel
  • Agouti

Birds

  • Orange-chinned Parakeets
  • Red-lored Amazon
  • Scarlet Macaw
  • Great Currasow
  • Crested Caracara
  • Mangrove Black Hawk
  • Roadside Hawk
  • Yellow-headed Caracara
  • Common Paureque
  • Lineated Woodpecker
  • Black-hooded Antshrike
  • Chestnut-backed Antbird
  • Wedge-billed Woodcreeper
  • Short-billed Pigeon
  • White-tipped Dove
  • Rufus Piha
  • Rufus-tailed Hummingbird
  • Red-capped Manakin
  • Chestnut-mandibled Toucan
  • Great Tinamou
  • Little Tinamou
  • Bright-rumped Atilla
  • Masked Tityra
  • Black-throated Trogon
  • House Wren
  • Black Vulture
  • Turkey Vulture

Reptiles

  • Barred Ameiva
  • Four-lined Ameiva
  • Golfo Dulce Anolis
  • Pug-nosed Anole
  • Clawless Gecko
  • Mediterranean House Gecko
  • Cat-eyed Snake
  • Litter Snake
  • Salmon-bellied Racer

Amphibians

  • Marine Toad
  • Red-eyed Green Tree Frog
  • Banana Frog
  • Masked Smilisca
  • Milky Frog
  • Small-headed Frog
  • Smokey Jungle Frog
  • Black and Green Poison Arrow Frog
  • Golfo Dulce Poison Arrow Frog
  • Fitzinger’s Rain Frog
  • Tink Frog

Butterflies

  • Adelpha cytherea
  • Caligo eurilochus
  • Chioides albofasciata
  • Colobura dirce
  • Corticea corticea
  • Cupido comyntas
  • Detritivora gynaea
  • Dryas iulia
  • Euphyes vestries
  • Eurybia lycisca
  • Heliconius cydno
  • Heliconius erato
  • Heliconius hecale
  • Heliconius ismenius
  • Heliconius sapho
  • Heraclides cresphontes
  • Hermeuptychia hermes
  • Junonia everete
  • Morpho helenor
  • Morpho menelaus
  • Pareuptychia ocirrhoe
  • Parides erithalion
  • Pierlla helvina
  • Pierella luna
  • Pseudolycaena damo
  • Pyrgus oileus
  • Pyrisitia nise
  • Siproeta stelenes
  • Urbanus simplicius

 Plants

  • Astrocaryum Palm Fruiting
  • Black Alligator Tree Flowering and Fruiting
  • Calabash flowering and fruiting
  • Cedrillo Fruiting
  • Clusia Vine Fruiting
  • Devil’s Little Hat Fruiting
  • Dinner on a Plate Fruiting
  • Monkey Comb Tree Flowering and Fruiting
  • Candlestick Plant Flowering and Flowering.
  • Cannonball Tree Flowering
  • Figs Fruiting
  • Inga Fruiting
  • May Tree Fruiting
  • Manglillo Fruiting
  • Nutmeg Fruiting
  • Royal Palm Fruiting
  • Santa Maria Flowering and Fruiting
  • Stanhopea Orchid Flowering
  • Stinky Toe Fruiting
  • Ylang ylang Flowering
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