Archive for the ‘Veridion Adventures’ Tag

BIODIVERSITY MOST ORDINARY   1 comment


Veridion Adventures. Philip Davison. Rainforest animals. Rainforest plants

Day by day the rains lessen.  Day by day the sun is breaking through a little more, warming up the ground and consequently the air.  Evaporation causes the relative humidity to rise.  We are almost there, almost into the dry season.  It won’t be long before we start to lament the lack of precipitation but let us at least enjoy the first few dry weeks without complaint.  There have now been 3 dry sunny days in succession.  It doesn’t take long for the muddy trails to start drying out.

Biodiversity Most Ordinary: Net-winged Planthopper

There are certain insects that you see regularly in a variety of locations but they don’t excite your interest because there is nothing outstanding about them; no bright color, no unusual shape or weird behavior.  They are just a general insect.

Net-winged Planthoppers fall into this category of ordinary.  I see them but I am never inspired to point the lens in their direction.  Last week as I was searching the vegetation, scrutinizing the grass blades and poking around on the ground looking for a subject that I may have never seen before, one of the Net-winged Planthoppers landed in front of me.  Well here was an opportunity to photograph something even if the subject was mundane.

Rainforest insects. Hemiptera. Homoptera. Nogodinidae. Biolleyana costalis. Net-winged Planthopper. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Net-winged Planthopper, (Biolleyana costalis)

I am probably doing the Net-winged Planthopper a disservice as they are as important as everything else within the complex system of interactions that make up the tropical rainforest ecosystem.  They are true bugs and belong in the homopteran family: Nogodinidae, which taxonomically is regarded as being Neotropical.  Information regarding their life histories are non-existent at worst to scarce at best.  I think this individual is one of the 3 known Biollyana species, possibly Biolleyana costalis.  They are plant sap feeders and use the long piercing mouthparts to tap into the plant’s vascular system.

There are 22 families of planthoppers consisting of approximately 12, 500 species.  Despite their method of feeding, very few of them are vectors for plant borne diseases and are not especially known as agricultural pests.

Biodiversity Most Ordinary: Better Red Than Dead

Not too far from the Net-winged Planthopper I found another puzzling creature.  My initial thought was that this is a Hemipteran nymph, probably Heteroptera but as to what family I do not know.

What caught my eye was the fact that this nymph was colored fiery red and I found it on a bright red Heliconia flower.  This invites certain questions.  Red is a commonly found color used by plants for their flowers in a tropical rainforest.  Red is the complementary color to green.  It is a very hot color whereas green is very cool color.  Red will vividly stand out from a surrounding sea of green vegetation.  Many pollinators have acute color vision and will spot the potential food source, (normally nectar), advertised by the plant.  The payback is the transference of pollen and therefore the completion of reproduction for the stationary plant.

Rainforest Insects. Hemiptera. Heteroptera. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Heteroptera nymph

So does the adult bug select for red flowers on which to lay its eggs and the sap-sucking nymph that hatches is red and blends in with its host plant?  Might it be that the nymph upon hatching feeds on the plant tissue and takes in the plants red pigments such as carotenes, which it then stores to subsequently give it the matching color?  It may well be that is was simply a coincidence and the red nymph just happened to be on a red flower, there are many red heteropteran nymphs that feed on green leaves which defies logic as they then become very visible.  But nature has its ways, which unlike the red nymphs on green leaves, is not always obvious.

Biodiversity Most Ordinary: Tales of the Flesh

Flies are distained by most people, and with good reason; they can be both annoying and dangerous.  For the most part, flies possess wings, atypical for insects – only one pair of wings.  Adult flies are liquid feeders and that embraces just about all liquids, including blood, particularly vertebrate blood.  The larvae feed on liquids and solids.

Excellent fliers with unspeakably bad habits, (from a human point of view), and the ability to travel over long distances give the Diptera, (True Flies), a reputation as one of the most serious vectors of human borne disease and pathogens.

Flies require protein in their diet, a first-rate source of which is blood, mammalian blood, human blood.  Mosquitoes are probably the most widely know vectors used by blood living parasites as vectors between species and individuals within a species.  Mosquitoes are not alone, they are joined by Black Flies, Sand Flies and Horse Flies as bringing nuisance, illness and death to their victims.

This Flesh Fly, (Sarcophagidae sp), was perched on a log in the sun.  Flesh Flies could be regarded as a typical dipteran, to look at there is nothing outstanding.  They are not particularly large or have strange anatomical features.  There are about 600 species of Flesh Flies in the neotropics and to the layman they mostly all look the same.

Rainforest Insects. Diptera. Sarcophagidae. Flesh Fly. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Flesh Fly, (Sarcophagidae sp)

Because they are common and widespread, their unsavory habit of feeding on carrion and excrement as well as associating with humans points the finger of accusation in being the mechanical vector in disease transmission.  Unlike most dipterans Flesh Flies are ovoviviparous, the larvae hatch from the eggs as they are laid.  In some cases this may be an open wound in a mammal where the maggot immediately begins to consume the rotting tissue, hence the name Flesh Fly.  Who knows what this individual might have been carrying on its feet and liquid feeding tongue but I was never going to get close enough to find out.

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

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RAINFOREST DIVERSITY: SOMETHING FOR EVERYONE   2 comments


Veridion Adventures. Philip Davison. Rainforest animals. Rainforest plants

There is still no let up in the rainy conditions.  The good news is that the days are more overcast than dark and the rain is now falling more as a drizzle rather than a deluge.  As with recent weeks the sun has been shining once in a while so hopefully as we move into December the rains will abate and we will be able to say the dry season has started.

Rainforest Diversity – Beetles

The wet conditions have kept me indoors more than I would like.  On those occasions that I have been out and about there was not too much animal life to point the camera at.  When you read about the diversity of fauna and flora contained within a tropical rainforest you would expect to be surrounded by a non-stop progression of subjects.  That is not always the case.  However if you persist and concentrate on looking a little more closely at the vegetation then something is bound to turn up.

Beetles are the most numerously named group of animals on the planet.  Surely there have to be beetles wherever you look.  Well they aren’t as obvious as you might imagine.  Many of them are secretive, ground-living or wood-boring insects.  Looking diligently at the leaves as I made my way along a sunny path and hoping for at least one or two individuals of any insect to be out I saw a small beetle that I had never seen before.  Given that Costa Rica has 47,000 named species of beetle and I would never profess to being a specialist coleopterist, then the fact that I did not know what species I was looking at should come as no surprise.

Rainforest beetles. Coleoptera. Cerambycidae. Cerambycinae. Long-horned Beetle. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Long-horned Beetle, (Cerambycinae sp)

I can generally make an immediate I.D. to family level and that was not hard with this one.  The length of the antennae were the give away, the very long length, far longer than the body.  This was a small Long-horned Beetle, family: Cerambycidae.  This one also had a long pronotum, (the area behind the head), and a very long body.  I was guessing it belonged in the subfamily: Cerambycinae.  I now had to go and research online to see if I could find the genus and species.  Alas, my scrutinizing a great many photographs failed to result in a match but at least I have the image should I find further reference material in the future.

Rainforest Diversity – Fungi

The beetles are matched by the fungi in terms of numbers and also a lack of reference material for the non-specialist to identify them to species level.  Many of the biologists working with tropical taxa tend to be specialists.  I am more of a generalist and enjoy all forms of life; plants, animals, fungi and no matter whether they are extant or extinct.  My areas of specialty are butterflies, reptiles and amphibians.  It can be frustrating sometimes when a name cannot be found as that might reveal information about the life-history of the organism and its role in the ecosystem.  Essentially it helps establish those links that increase our understanding of the system, what happens if those links are severed and conservation management strategies that would be required to stop the system collapsing.

Rainforest fungi. Agaricales. Hygrophoraceae. Costa Rica. Osa Peninsula. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Dried Mushroom, (Hygrocybe sp?)

So it was that I found a mushroom growing from the side of a rotten tree trunk.  I had seen and photographed this species before and, like so many others, had not been abled to identify it to species level.  There are 2000 named species of fungi in Costa Rica but estimates of how many species actually exist in this small country are as high as 70 000, so you can see the problem, you may be looking at one of the 68 000 estimated species that have not as yet been discovered.

This specimen was somewhat dried out and partly eaten.  The aspect gives a good view of the gills under the cap.  Given the features I have to work with I would guess the genus to be Hygrocybe, but I would not be held to that.  Within the gills you can also see a fungus fly.  These are flies that lay their eggs in the mushroom and when the larvae emerge they are surrounded by a ready food supply.

Rainforest Diversity – Spiders

Spiders are the eighth most numerously named group of animals on the planet.  As with the beetles and fungi, reference material is sparse for Costa Rican species.  However, this was one I did know.  It is not an uncommon spider.  They are nocturnal and build very distinctive horizontal webs.  It is an Orchard Spider, (Leucauge venusta).

They are not large spiders and can be easily overlooked.  But if you get up close you will find it has rather lovely markings.  The opisthosoma is patterned with curving bands colored with white, red, yellow and blue.

Rainforest Spiders. Arachnida. Araneae. Tetragnathidae. Leucauge venusta. Orchard Spider. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Orchard Spider, (Leucauge venusta)

Orchard Spiders are prone to being parasitized by Ichneumonid Wasps.  The wasp finds the spider and injects an egg into its abdomen.  The egg hatches and the wasp larva proceeds to suck the spider’s internal bodily fluids.  Outwardly this does not seem to affect the spider’s behavior and it continues web building as normal.  But then something insidious happens.  The wasp larva produces a chemical that allows it to sequester the spiders brain.  The chemical changes the spiders web building behavior and it produces a web which is not conducive to capturing insects but rather acts as a protective silken home for the pupating wasp.  The zombified spider, now of no value to the wasp, dies.  Nature can be both cruel and fascinating at the same time.

Rainforest Diversity – Butterflies

For someone passionate about butterflies I am in the right country.  Rainforests cover 6% the total land surface of the Earth and yet contain an estimated 50% of the worlds biodiversity.  Costa Rica, with only 0.3% of the planets terrestrial area is estimated to house 5% of the world’s total biodiversity.  The Osa Peninsula in the south west of the country is one of the most biodiverse localities in Costa Rica.  There are a lot of butterflies here.  I have recorded approximately 400 of the 1250 species to be found in this small Central American Republic, that is 32% found at Cabo Matapalo, the tip of this tiny piece of land sticking out into the Pacific Ocean.

Even here on Cabo Matapalo there is a large diversity of habitat and different butterflies prefer different conditions.  Many of the butterflies live up at canopy level and are beyond daily recording techniques.  There are butterflies that prefer open sunny gardened areas, some can be more commonly found along forest edges.  Then there are those presence will only be recorded in the gloomy and shadowy world that exists beneath the canopy, some at higher levels and some always hugging the ground.

I have nothing against bright, gaudy coloration but my liking is for more cryptic and subtle forms which when examined close up are every bit as beautiful as their showy cousins.  Among the more subdued colored butterflies are the Browns or Satyrs belonging to the family: Nymphalidae, subfamily: Satyrinae.  The Satyrinae are notable for the number of eyespots on the underside of the wings.  The ground colors are browns and grays patterned with ochres and umbers.

Rainforest Butterflies. Nymphalidae. Satyrinae. Pareuptychia ocirrhoe. Two-band Satyr. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Two-band Satyr, (Pareuptychia ocirrhoe)

The Two-banded Satyr, (Pareuptychia ocrirrhoe), has white dorsal wing surfaces and a bouncy flight close to the ground which gives it a flickering appearance.  I found this one flying along the forest edge on a very overcast day.  They respond quickly to movement so you have to approach slowly and deliberately in order for them to stay perched.

The Two-banded Satyr is normally found singly.  The larvae feed on grasses, (Poaceae), and the adults feed on rotting fruit and fungi, a diet that may account for them living longer, (several weeks), than other butterflies, (several days).

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

ARMY ANTS:  A LIVING WAVE OF BLACK DEATH   6 comments


Veridion Adventures. Philip Davison. Rainforest animals. Rainforest plants

November is upon us.  The wet season continues, relentless heavy rain falling if not all day then at least part thereof.  One day last week over 14 inches of rain fall in an overnight deluge.  The following day the forest trails were more akin to newly formed streams, the water flowing downhill until it reached a point where it could tumble into the main creek that runs through the grounds, swelling its volume and increasing its velocity to that of a raging torrent.   There have been some dry, sunny days and if the weather continues its normal pattern then progressively as we move through the month the number of rainless days should increase.

I have been away for a month and upon my return, as with each and every year, the first thing I hear is the call of the Summer Tanager, (Piranga rubra), which has spent the summer in North America.  Not much has changed in the area while I was away.   The resident wildlife can still be found without any effort.  The White-nosed Coati, (Nasua narica), populations are growing at a steady and sustained rate.  I have never seen as many wandering the grounds as I do now.  The solitary males are normally bold creatures, but the females tend to be shy and retiring.  Now, however, the females and their young will allow you to approach very close without scurrying off into the shelter of the trees.

Rainforest lizards. Costa Rica. Polychrotidae. Anolis osae. Osa Anole. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Osa Anolis, (Anolis osae)

The wet conditions have proved to be conducive in allowing the amphibians to continue their courtship and breeding.  There are not so many egg masses present as in the main breeding period, (May – July), but there are still several species spawning on a nightly basis.  Feeding on the eggs are the Cat-eyed Snakes, (Leptodeira septentrionalis), which can be found every night by the pond.  The ever-present anoles of several species can be seen in the forest.  The commonest and most obvious is the Osa Anole, (Anolis osae), with its bright orange dewlap.  If one male is signaling to another to leave his territory then you can’t miss that flash of color against the dark background.

Ants Are Everywhere

Ants are ubiquitous insects in the forest.  On the trees you will see lines of Tiger Ants, (Camponotus sericeiventris), walking in line, foraging for food.  They receive their name from the black and yellow coloration rather than an aggressive nature.  In the lawns you would be well advised to avoid stepping in those small powdering mounds of earth that betray the presence of Fire Ants, (Solonopsis sp), living just beneath the surface.  I have never known anything so small cause so much pain as the fire ants.  The problem is that they are so small you don’t know you are covered in them until they start to bite and they all do so together.  It would be almost impossible to miss the presence of Leaf-cutter Ants, (Atta cephalotes), in these forests, whether it be descending the tree trunks with freshly cut leaf fragments or seeing lines of ants moving as a green river, snaking across the forest floor as they make their way back to, the nests with, what essentially is composting material for their fungus gardens.  Leaf-cutter Ant nests occur every 100 meters or so in whatever direction throughout the forest and can easily be identified by the large waste tips of excavated material marking the nests’ peripheral boundaries.

Rainforest insects. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Atta cephalotes. Leaf-cutter Ant. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Pebble-capped towers formed by heavy rain on Leaf-cutter Ant nest waste tip

Army Ants:  A Living Wave of Black Death

It is a warm day, the rain has stopped, the sun is shining and you are quietly walking through the forest, binoculars strung around your neck and camera in hand.  The air is still and there is little sound bar the occasional call of a bird here and there and the soft white noise of calling insects which is not too intrusive.  You walk in a state of reverie, not thinking about anything in particular, your eyes scanning the vegetation for small subjects to photograph or watching for movement that may indicate a bird or mammal is moving across your path.  It is a day for enjoying your surroundings and contemplating the life contained within.  You are blissfully unaware of the carnage being carried out in the forest ahead.

As you make your way forward you start to hear more birds calling.  Some of the sounds you are familiar with; a Black-hooded Antshrike, (Thamnophilus bridgesi), Bicolored Antbirds, (Gymnophythis leucaspis), and Chestnut-backed Antbirds, (Myrmeciza exul).  This seems as if it might provide some good photographic opportunities so you make sure the camera is ready with the correct settings.  Now some other birds fly past you and land on the tree trunks, most of them a variety of treecreepers; Streak-headed, (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii), Tawny-winged, (Dendrocincla anabatina), and Ruddy, (Dendrocinclo homochroa).  The bird calls are increasing in intensity, excitement and volume as you make your way to where they seem to be congregating.  As you approach you can see them briefy dropping from the vegetation to the ground and back up again.  There is another sound, a hum which pervades the air.  Having left your dreamlike state and become more acutely aware you see that you are surrounded by flies buzzing everywhere. You see one or two Gray-headed Tanagers, (Eucomectis penicillata), amongst the mixed bird flock, the presence of which along with the flies provide the clues as to what is happening.   Finally you hear, a sound like softly falling rain and yet there is not a cloud in the sky.  From about 5 meters in front of you and advancing rapidly towards you like a sheet of black polythene being pulled across the forest floor is a foraging front of Army Ants, (Echiton burchellii); a living wave of black death.

Rainforest ants. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Dorylinae. Eciton burchellii. Army Ant. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Army Ant, (Eciton burchellii), on the march

The feet of thousands of miniature assassins moving as one across the dried leaves give the illusion of rain falling.  You stand dumbstruck by the scene playing out in front of you.  As the procession of annihilation moves closer you can see down by your feet beetles, cockroaches and crickets running for their lives.  These are the lucky few.  The killers are insatiable.  Any small creature unfortunate enough to caught in their unrelenting path will be overwhelmed, stung to death, and then decapitated, dismembered and disemboweled.  The wickedly sharp mandibles of the army ant hunters slash and cut through exoskeleton, muscle and connective tissue.  The victim’s mutilated body fragments are then carried away by the mindless insect ghouls to provide a feast macabre for the larvae.  As fascinating to witness as this bloodbath at the macro level is, you had better move.  The ants are now crossing the path all around your feet. You might be too big for them to tackle, but the long stinger and virulent toxin can cause a lot of pain.

Rainforest insects. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Dorylinae. Eciton burchellii. Army Ant. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Army Ants, (Eciton burchellii), carrying severed spider leg back to feed larvae

For those insects capable of flight and able to escape the ravaging mandibles of the ants, the danger is not over.  The birds were attracted to the ant swarm to take advantage of the free meal they provide by flushing insects from their hiding places.  Gray-headed Tanagers are obligative followers of the army ants.  Wherever they are, you will find the tanagers.  The flies are there for the same reason.  These are Coffin Flies, (Phoridae sp).  When an insect attempts to escape by taking flight, the parasitic phorid fly swoops in, lays an egg and flies out again.  The eggs will hatch and the grub will eat the victim.

Army Ants are one of the major predators in the forest.  They rank alongside Boa Constrictors, Harpy Eagles and Jaguars as one of the top of the food pyramid predators in the forest.  They are a nomadic ant and they have to be nomadic because being such a super-efficient predator, should they settle in any one area for any length of time, they would deplete it of all small forms of life very quickly.

They have 2 three week cycles; a nomadic stage when they move in a flowing column of ants, the queen travelling with them, until they find a new hunting ground.  They do not construct a nest, they make a bivouac, generally at the base of a tree, which is a huge ball of ants held together by the interlinking of legs. The queen moves to center and swells up.  She starts to lay approx. 60, 000 eggs per day.  When the eggs hatch and the larvae emerge, the emit a pheromone which elicits a hunting response from the other workers.  They then move through the forest in a front anything up to 60 feet, (20 meters), across and take all small forms of life in their path: insects, small frogs, small lizards, small snakes, fledgling birds, if it is there then they will have it.  Once it has been butchered into small pieces, these are taken back via feeder columns to the bivouac to feed the larvae.  When the larvae pupate, the hunting response is switched off and  they return to the nomadic stage making their way through the forest once again.

A New Assassin

Rainforest ants. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Dorylinae. Nomamyrmex sp. Army Ant. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures

Army Ant, (Nomamyrmex sp) carrying pupa from Leaf-cutter Ant, (Atta cephalotes), nest

There are many species of Army Ant and the species described above is the most commonly found in the area Echiton burchellii.  Last week I found a species that I had never seen before.  As well as slaughtering prey items on the forest floor, army ants will also enter the nests of other ants and take out the eggs, larvae, pupae, workers and queen.  They one ant they fight shy of taking on are the Leaf-cutter Ants.  There may be several hundred thousand in an army ant colony, there can be up to 8 million in a leaf-cutter ant colony.  The soldier leaf-cutters are huge and equipped with razor sharp mandibles.  They are programmed to fight to the death.  The army ants would lose so many of their own numbers if they were to raid a leaf-cutter ant nest.  Even if they come across them on a trail they will not interfere with them.

Rainforest animals. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Atta cephalotes. Leaf-cutter Ant. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Leaf-cutter Ant, (Atta cephalotes), soldier

It was to my surprise therefore when last week a watched for the first time an army ant raid on a leaf-cutter ant nest.  Luckily I had the camera in my hand and found a place to lie down and take photos.  On this occasion the leaf-cutters seemed to be helpless to stop the nest being ransacked.  When I downloaded the images and looked at the images I did not recognize the species at all.  Despite their distinctive flat, square heads, extensive searching produced no I.D.  Eventually I found one photo and some information.  The genus is Nomamyrmex and it contains two species.  I am not sure which one I had been watching but I was happy to have witnessed an event I had never seen before being carried out by an ant I had never seen before and had the photos to prove it.

Rainforest insects. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Dorylinae. Nomamyrmex sp. Army Ant. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Army Ants, (Nomamyrmex sp), raiding Leaf-cutter Ant, (Atta cephalotes), nest

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

 

CUCKOO WASPS:  A DAZZLING PARASITE   2 comments


Wildlife, nature, fauna and flora of Costa Rica.

Now the weather has taken a significant change.  The rains that are expected to fall in September have started in earnest.  The rain is now falling all day and on most days.  This is good news for the frogs and this year the breeding continues on without a drop in intensity.  Every night there are large numbers of calling males.  The females are obviously responding because every morning there are lots of freshly spawned eggs.

After 17 years of data collection for my study, “Using amphibian and butterfly populations as a measure of environmental health”, I have decided to call it a day and now have to sit down and analyze the data.  Essentially I have been collecting data on population dynamics of butterflies and amphibians as well as recording daily weather conditions.  I look at changes in butterfly populations measured against temperature and amphibian populations measured against precipitation.  There are a great many other variables to be taken into consideration but watch this space for news of what the data might be showing us.

Butterflies in the Sun

Due to the constant rain and the trails running like streams, I have not been able to spend as much time outside as I would normally wish.  However, on the one day I did manage to get out and take some photographs I was rewarded with a mixed bag of goodies of which only one was new to me.

One morning the sun was shining and the butterflies were taking advantage of its warming rays.  The Lantana camara bushes are always a big nectar draw for the butterflies and this day proved to be no different.  Although there were nowhere near the number of species found during drier periods of the year there were enough to try and take a few shots.

One very small but distinctive butterfly that I have a particular liking for, (I don’t know why), is the Tropical Checkered Skipper, (Pyrgus oileus).  It is a fairly common skipper with a wide geographical distribution from southern North America and through into Costa Rica.  At a distance the black and white checkered pattern make it stand out against the green of the grass where it is normally found flying close to the ground.  When seen close up the wings and body are covered in a grey/blue fur.  The females tend to be a darker overall color.  The caterpillars feed on plants in the family: Malvaceae, of which there are several species growing in abundance locally.

Rainforests. Butterflies. Costa Rica. Veridion Adventures. Hesperiidae. Pyrginae. Pyrgus oileus.

Tropical Checkered Skipper, (Pyrgus oileus)

They belong in the family: Hesperiidae and the subfamily: Pyrginae or Spreadwing Skippers due to their habit of basking with the wings wide open.  There are approximately 50 species in the genus: Pyrgus and they can be found throughout Europe, Asia, North, Central and South America.  You are more likely to find Tropical Checkered Skippers in open sunny locations which is where I found this one.

Feeding on the nectar of the same patch of Lantana was yet another Spreadwing Skipper but one which looked completely different to the Checkered Skipper.  This was a Long-tailed Skipper, (Urbanus proteus), notable for the two long tail-like extensions of the hind wings.  There are several species of Long-tailed Skippers in the immediate area but each one has distinctive markings to the wings.  The dorsal surface of the abdomen and the wings are covered in metallic green hairs.  Again it is a widespread species ranging from southern North America, down through Central America and into South America.  The larvae feed on leguminous vines of which there are many species growing locally.  In North America it is sometimes considered a pest as it feeds on commercially grown beans.

Rainforests. Butterflies. Costa Rica. Veridion Adventures. Hesperiidae. Pyrginae. Urbanus proteus

Long-tailed Skipper, (Urbanus proteus)

This individual can be seen using its proboscis to probe for and suck nectar from the Lantana blooms.  One of the changes I have documented over the past 17 years is the progressive increase in annual average temperatures. One of the impacts this may have on butterfly populations is with increasing temperatures there will be increasing evaporation of the nectar.  This in turn causes an exponential increase in nectar viscosity.  We could end up with a situation whereby if the temperature increases to the point where the nectar is too viscous for the butterflies to suck up, then they may well not be able to feed, bringing about starvation, death and a collapse in butterfly numbers.  This is one of many variables I have to take into consideration when looking at the fact that we have had a 35% decline in butterfly species over the past 17 years.

Cuckoo Wasps: A Dazzling Parasite

While watching the butterflies flit back and forth, only stopping momentarily to take a feed of nectar, I noticed a tiny metallic green insect, only about 10mm long.  It was on top of a leaf at eye level and not moving.  It was striking in that the green was very reflective, it looked like a piece of metallic foil.  I was looking at a Cuckoo Wasp.  I have only ever photographed one in the past so if this one did not move then here was a second opportunity beckoning.  I slowly lifted the camera and got the shot but as I moved my position for a head on photo it took to the air and disappeared.

Cuckoo wasps are solitary wasps of the order: Hymenoptera, which includes bees, wasps and ants amongst others.  They belong in the family: Chrysididae, after the Greek word Chrysis – golden vessel.  They are also known as Jewel Wasps and they certainly have a jewel-like quality to them.  The refraction of light produces the spectacular metallic coloration, similar to the iridescent blues of the Blue Morpho butterflies.  In this case it is the multi-layered waxy cuticle of the wasp’s exoskeleton that produces the refraction.  There are about 3,000 named species of Cuckoo Wasps and they are found in most parts of the planet.

Rainforest insects. Hymenoptera. Chrysididae. Cuckoo Wasp.

Dazzling parasite, Cuckoo Wasp, (Chrysididae sp)

The name Cuckoo Wasp refers to the fact that, depending on species, they are either parasitoids or kleptoparasites preying upon other wasps.  Like any parasite dealing with a dangerous host it has to have evolved behavioral methods that allow it to get in and get out without being discovered or be killed.  To that end it has a very sneaky strategy.

A female Cuckoo Wasp will case the joint she is about to infiltrate.  She watches and waits for a female Digger Wasp to begin making a burrow.  When the Digger Wasp starts to bring in paralyzed prey on which to lay her eggs, the Cuckoo Wasp either hangs onto the immobilized victim and will be dragged into the burrow, or she waits until the Digger Wasp has left on another foraging trip and she will stealthily slip into the burrow.  If caught in the act, all is not lost.  Some species of Cuckoo Wasp have a concave underside and can roll into a ball.  The sting of the enraged host will not penetrate the heavily pitted exoskeleton of this now globe-like emerald.  The host has to physically carry the Cuckoo in the nest out in its jaws where it will then sit and watch till it can strike again.

Having subverted the hosts defenses, the female Cuckoo Wasp lays its eggs.  Some species are kleptoparasites, once the egg hatches and the larva emerges it will kill and eat the host larva and then consumes the food the host female is providing for it.  It remains undetected by mimicking the chemical signature odor of the host.  Others wait for the host larva to grow and then kill and consume it before it pupates.  Then like its avian namesake, it is the Cuckoo that thrives within the nest of its unwitting host and eventually emerges as a new parasite.  They parasitize a wide variety of hosts from solitary wasps and bees, to sawflies and walking sticks.  Unlike many other wasps where the ovipositor is modified into a lethal sting, the Cuckoo Wasp has a modified ovipositor and reduced venom sac so has no potentially lethal means of attack or defense.

Who would of thought as I photographed this gorgeous glowing emerald insect that it would have such an insidious life history.

A Collection of Queens

Another wasp nest that I have been walking past over the past month or so has been not only gradually increasing in size but is now populated by more adult wasps tending it.  It is the nest of one of the Social Paper Wasps, (Polistes sp).  The original queen had created a few cells beneath a leaf in each of which she laid an egg.  The eggs hatched, the larvae she provided with a food of chewed up insects until they were large enough.  She then capped the cell of the now pupa and waited for it to emerge.  The new wasp is one of the original queen’s offspring and like their mother they are equally capable of mating and reproducing.

Rainforest insects. Paper Wasps. Hymenoptera. Vesperidae. Polistinae. Costa Rica. Veridion Adventures.

Female Paper Wasp, (Polistes sp), guarding her nest.

To begin with they help with the nest, building more cells, tending the larval siblings, foraging for food and helping the nest to increase in size.  The cells are constructed from masticated vegetative material.  Prey is caught and chewed up for the larvae to feed.  The sting is only used defensively.  They will attack any potential predator that approaches too close.  So, my approach was one of great stealth.  I took a few took a few exposures but the flash was beginning to antagonize them and one took flight and started buzzing around my head which was my cue to slowly back off and leave them to their business.

The other females usually have reduced ovarian systems but dominance of the original queen is not always assured.  Fights break out and a new queen can become established within the hierarchy taking over the major reproductive role.  When the male wasps emerge, they may stay on the nest for some time before leaving.

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

ARMADILLOS: SUCCESS OF THE ANCIENTS   6 comments


Wildlife, nature, fauna and flora of Costa Rica.

Transition, that is what is occurring now.  The days remain largely sunny but the rain has started to increase in volume, intensity and duration at night.  The creek running through the area is always a good yardstick by which to measure how dry the ground is.  This year the creek never dried up and as of this week the flow is fast and the level high.  The small cascades along its course are looking very picturesque with the water tumbling from higher to lower levels into the plunge pools, babbling softly as it does so and sounding like playful water nymphs inviting you to join them and cool off in the heat of the day.  The water here is clean and crystal clear, its depth holds no latent or potential disease and the only animal life is the occasional sighting of a tropical crayfish hidden beneath a submerged rock, its bright blue body being visible to only those with the keenest eyes.

The Puma, (Puma concolor), has been seen again and its tracks could be found on several trails around the grounds.  The past week has also been a good one for seeing the Squirrel Monkeys which are normally a little more retiring living as they do in the thickets of secondary forest.  At the moment they have been making daily excursions in large numbers through the gardened areas.

The repetitive call of the Bright-rumped Atilla, (Attila spadiceus), had fallen silent for some months but once again they have started up and bursts of “Read it, read it, read it, read it” can be heard again echoing around the trails in the early morning.  The frog breeding season normally starts with the first rains in May and then by the end of July it is over.  Not this year.  Every evening, just after sunset, the various species of amphibian emerge en masse, the males begin to call for a mate and by next morning the vegetation on and around the pond is covered in frog’s eggs.

Armored Four Sight

It is dark in the forest.  You can’t see much.  Your flashlight illuminates the path in front of you but the beam does not penetrate very far into the blackness and it also casts deep shadows.  There is something moving in those shadows.  You stop and listen.  It is not something small.  You shine the flashlight in the direction of the movement, your eyes peering into the gloom.  You still can’t make out any shape but the sound of the creature advances ever closer.  It crashes forward a few feet then stops for a moment and then moves again.  You can start to see the dead leaves and fallen twigs moving.  Your heart is in your mouth, it is almost upon you.  Then silence.  It is suddenly aware of your presence and it has stopped, motionless, whatever it is probably eyeing you as a meal.  Then crash, it takes flight and rushes across the path in front of your feet.  No wonder it sounded like a small tank rumbling across the forest floor, it is a mini armored insect feeder, a Nine-banded Armadillo, (Dasypus novemcinctus).

Rainforest mammals. Armadillo. Mammalia. Xenathra. Dasypodidae. Dasypus novemcinctus.

Juvenile Nine-banded Armadillo, (Dasypus novemcinctus), grubbing for food

Armadillos rank alongside sloths as one of the mammals that people would like to see when they visit the forests of the Osa Peninsula.  They are not as readily found as the monkeys, agoutis or coatis but they are here and they do show up fairly frequently.  They are encountered more commonly at night but it is not unusual to see them trundling around on the ground during the day too.

Armadillos belong in the ancient mammalian order: Xenathra along with anteaters and sloths.  Nine-banded Armadillos have a large geographic distribution.  They are found from the Southern United States through Central America down into Argentina.  Between 4 – 2 million years ago when the southern part of Costa Rica and Panama rose out of the sea to form the land bridge between the North American and South American continents it provided a means by which terrestrial animals could move between the formerly separated land masses.  Many northern species moved south and survived.  Only three species moved north and survived; opossums, porcupines and the Nine-banded Armadillo. Nine-banded Armadillos have a large geographic distribution.  They are found from the Southern United States through Central America down into Argentina.

There is no mistaking an armadillo for any other type of creature.  The body is covered in a shell composed of bony plates within a keratinous horny skin.  The eyes and ears of an armadillo do not function too well.  The long snout provides an excellent sense of smell which is essential in the location of food.  The majority of the armadillo’s diet is insects.  It has powerful claws which it uses to grub up a variety of ant and termite species from the ground.  With the nose stuck in the dirt, an armadillo can hold its breath for upto 6 minutes while it feeds on a particularly good banquet.  Those claws also dig out burrows in which the armadillo lives.

Reproductively armadillos are very interesting.  The female armadillo can delay implantation of the fertilized egg into the uterine wall if the prevailing weather or feeding conditions are less than optimum for its survival.  The egg always divides into four which means that the female armadillo will give birth to four identical quads.

Last week as I headed out for a walk I saw four of these juvenile siblings snuffling their way through the lawn, heads stuck in the ground, turning over the earth in search of a meal.  They had absolutely no idea I was there.  I took some photos and then lay on the ground to take some photos as they came trundling towards me.  It only dawned on them that I was there when one hit the camera.  The first defense response of an armadillo is to jump, albeit not too high, and then run off.  The first one to make contact with me turned and ran but the others still had no idea of my presence.  The adults are no better.  I have stood still in the past and had large armadillo running back and forth over my feet.  Should anything alarm them and they take flight, their short-term memory is little more than a few seconds before they return about their business as if nothing had happened.  I enjoyed watching these youngsters for a while before heading off and leaving them to feed and hopefully avoid coming across something that might not be as benevolent as I was.

All That Glisters

Down amongst the leaf litter a glitter of polished bronze slips under the leaves.  As it passes from beneath one leaf to the next you can see a metallic object glinting momentarily before disappearing again.  It moved too quickly to truly see what it was but you persist.  There it is again.  You bend down to move the leaf where it went, but nothing.  Then you see it just a hands breadth away.  A small head looking at you with intent dark eyes.  It is a lizard or more particularly a skink.  It is tiny with an elongated body and shiny smooth scales.  The scales catch the light and reflect a bright dark copper.  You find yourself looking at a Brown Forest Skink, (Sphenomorphus cherriei).

Rainforest lizards. Skinks. Reptilia. Squamata. Sauria. Scincidae. Sphenomorphus cherriei.

Brown Forest Skink, (Sphenomorphus cherriei), looking out from under a leaf

Several weeks ago I took photos of yet another small leaf litter dwelling lizard, the Northern Spectacled Lizard, (Leposoma southi), and stated that I really wanted to find and photograph the Brown Forest Skink too.  It is no easy task as they move quickly and once beneath the leaf litter ‘swim’ in a serpentine fashion through the decomposing vegetative material.  This one poked its head out long enough for me to get a quick shot or two.  I will have to keep looking to get the full body shot.

The hard and shiny scales of a skink may serve several purposes.  They help it glide between the material of the substrate making up the leaf litter in which it lives.  But there are lots of birds hopping around close to the forest floor whose keenly acute vision would spot a meal such as skink very quickly.  If caught in the bill of an avian predator the scales allow the skink to slip out and hopefully, as far as the skink is concerned, make its escape.

Rainforest Skink. Lizard. Reptilia. Squamata. Sauria. Scincidae. Sphenomorphus cherriei.

Brown Forest Skink, (Sphenomorphus cherriei), close up of head

Dressed In Black For The Telling Of Dark Tales

Walking on the forest trails you see a something take flight and then settle again on another plant.  The overall aspect is of an insect cloaked in funereal colors.  The body is black and the wings have black banding.  Nonetheless it draws your attention.

The creature is a Black-winged Dragonlet, (Erythrodiplax funeralis), a common dragonfly found inhabiting forest rides or at the edge of open areas.  Dragonflies are restless predators.  They are on the constant look out for a meal.  They are easily disturbed too.  Those huge eyes and mobile head can spot a potential predator or prey item very quickly.  If it is the former they fly to another perch.  The Black-winged Dragonlet has a much more fluttery flight than some other dragonflies which seem to dart back and forth.

They catch their prey on the wing which means they feed on flying insects.  Should a meal fly by the dragonfly swoops in and catches in its legs which form an open basket beneath the thorax.  The legs are covered in spines which make it difficult for the victim to escape.  Once ensnared, the prey will be dispatched, the hard body parts and the wings dumped to the ground and the rest of the body consumed.

Rainforest insects. Dragonflies. Odonata. Anisoptera. Libellulidae. Erythrodiplax funeralis.

Black-winged Dragonlet, (Erythrodiplax funeralis)

Dragonflies can present a challenge to photograph.  They are acutely visually aware, they move quickly and they don’t like being approached.  This one I had to follow, very slowly and patiently, before I managed to get a photograph.  It did take a good few attempts as it kept moving from perch to perch and I was on the point of giving up when it seemed to settle, at least long enough for me to hit the shutter several times.  Anyone out there who has tried photographing flying insects knows that patience is an essential virtue if you are going to obtain any images.

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

CATERPILLARS: DON’T BE TOO RASH   2 comments


 

Veridion Adventures. Philip Davison. Rainforest animals. Rainforest plants

Orgy of Frenzied Frog Sex

Today has been a reasonably quiet day, overcast with no sun or rain, but with a gentle breeze constantly blowing.  The subdued atmosphere was briefly interrupted by some visitors who had been up and out walking before breakfast.  They had been over to the tropical garden area where there is a large pond.  Just before sunrise they had witnessed a frog orgy, an explosive breeding episode of the Parachuting Red-eyed Green Treefrog, (Agalychnis spurrelli).

The previous night, they had emerged on mass; throwing themselves from the tops of the trees they use the large, heavily webbed bright yellow hands and feet as parachutes to glide down to the ground level vegetation.  What the visitors had then come across were hundreds of paired up males and females laying sheets of eggs on the upper surfaces of the leaves around the pond.  For those who went a little later to see the spectacle, it was too late.  As the sun rises, the frogs make their way higher into the bushes and shrubs and then they tuck themselves up under the leaves to avoid the potentially desiccating effects of the sun’s rays.  You can still see them; they are all lined up, appearing as little silhouettes as the rising sun shines down through the plant leaves.

Rainforest frogs. Hylidae. Phyllomedusinae. Agalychnis spurrellii. Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog, (Agalychnis spurrelli)

More or less the same species of birds and butterflies have been seen in the grounds.  There has however been another migrant turn up, one more warbler, the Yellow Warbler, (Dendroica petechia).  As the name suggests, it has a yellow head and breast, with a dirtier yellow color to the back and wings.  The distinguishing feature is the male’s breast which is streaked with a series of orange dashes.

Some Mammals: Familiar or Not

Monkeys are a common sighting around the grounds of Bosque but there are two or three other mammals that visitors will see and quite often get mixed up even though they not related and do not remotely resemble one another.

The White-nosed Coati, (Nasua narica), is related to the raccoon familiar to most people in North America.  They have a deep rich brown fur and a little bit of white coloration around the muzzle which gives them their name.  The tail is sometimes ringed with dark and pale alternating bands and is generally held straight up in the air while the head is down foraging.   Just like their northern cousins, coatis are omnivorous and they will eat anything they can their paws on; grubs and crabs dug out of the ground, eggs and chicks from nesting birds as well as fruit.  They are accomplished climbers and today I watched one up a Coconut Palm, working away in an effort to dislodge the prized meal from its point of attachment.

The males are solitary and if you ever hear of one being referred to as a coati mundi, that is a single solitary male.  The females are gregarious and will be found in large groups accompanied by the young ones.

The other mammal commonly seen around the grounds is a large rodent, the Agouti, (Dasyprocta punctata). They are big caviomorph rodents, the closest relative of which people will be familiar with are the Guinea Pigs.  Agoutis are seed eaters.  Today there were several sitting under a large fruiting palm tree in front of the cabins, feeding on the fallen palm nuts.  Agoutis have the ability to sit on their haunches and you will quite often see them with large, tough shelled nuts, turning them in their front paws to gnaw through and get to the nutritious seed inside.  A common question I get is “What is that large rabbit-like creature with tiny ears and no tail”?  Easy, it is an Agouti.

A Lucky Escape

Tonight, after dinner, as I was talking to some guests in the restaurant, there was a splat behind me.  Normally anything going splat would be a treefrog jumping, freefalling and hitting the ground.  They don’t seem to suffer from the experience.  But on this occasion it was not a treefrog but rather surprisingly a young Grey Four-eyed Opossum that had lost its footing in the roof beams and fallen.  To be honest, it looked as if the impact had killed it.  I picked it up to remove it and could feel its heart was still beating, so I took it out into the entrance, kept it warm and within 5 minutes it had made a full recovery.  Not only that but in terms of thanks, it ran up my arm and sat on my shoulder so that I could return and show the diners that the day had a happy ending.

Caterpillars: Don’t Be Too Rash

One of the more surprising things about the area is that given the number of species of butterfly I have recorded, and bear in mind that number will be dwarfed by the number of moth species there are in the area, I very rarely see caterpillars.  When I do, I try to get a photo to add to the records.  A sentiment that I have now repeated on several occasions, is to bemoan the lack of adequate reference material to help identify certain organisms.  Caterpillars fall into one of two categories; very distinctive or not.  Even those you think may pose no problem in identifying turn out to be not as distinct as you first thought.  Over the past couple of weeks I have happened upon two caterpillars that have proved slightly easier to put a name to than normal.

 

 

This is the caterpillar of one of the Hawk moths, a Sphinx Moth, (Xylophanes chiron).  I found it on the underside of a leaf in the tropical garden.  The adult I found near my cabin.  The adult moth is to be found resting during the day on mossy covered tree trunks.  The body of the moth is covered in dense green “fur”.  The wings too, are a mossy green and both these features blend the moth in perfectly with its background.  The camouflage is aided by the wings having a broken band patterned as an exact copy of tree bark.

Rainforest caterpillars. Sphingidae. Xylophanes chiron. Hawk moth. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Hawk Moth, (Xylophanes chiron), caterpillar

Rainforest Moths. Sphingidae. Xylophanes chiron. Hawkmoth. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Hawk Moth, (Xylophanes chiron)

 

The second caterpillar is so very distinctive there should be no problem identifying it.  But there would be a big problem if you got too close.  The caterpillar belongs to yet another moth, a very insignificant small brown moth, the Saddleback Moth, (Acharia stimulea), belonging to the family Limacodidae.  The adult is the equivalent of what birders refer to as a “little brown job”.  Take a look at the caterpillar again though; its body has many protuberances bearing a covering of sharp spiny hairs.  If you touch the caterpillar, even ever so slightly, these urticating hairs deliver a chemical that will immediately result in a painful ulcerated rash that will last for several days.  So with the caterpillars, don’t be too rash to touch.

Rainforest caterpillars. Limacodidae. Arachia stimulea. Saddleback Moth. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Saddleback Moth,(Arachia stimulea), caterpillar

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

 

SERPENTINE PORTRAITS: SNAKES   1 comment


Veridion Adventures. Philip Davison. Rainforest animals. Rainforest plants

The weather is being kind again, another sunny day.  Rather than go scouting around the forest, I decided that I would try and get some photographs of the ornamental plants in the gardens.  It is always best to try and achieve this before the sun is too high in the sky otherwise you are going to be fighting against very bright light and harsh shadows.  So with that in mind I made an early morning start but now I encountered another problem, the light breeze that was blowing and causing the plants to gently sway back and forth.  I had really wanted some long exposure shots to nicely blur the background behind the featured blooms but that was not going to be possible.  I did, however, managed to take some photographs that I was happy with, particularly of the flower heads.  Later in the day when the sun has passed overhead, there is always the opportunity to try again.

Rainforest plants. Apocyanaceae. Plumeria rubra. Frangipani. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Frangipani, (Plumeria rubra)

There was a good variety of birds around today, but nothing out of the ordinary.  A dead tree with bare leafless branches was making a good vantage point for three of the tyrannid flycatchers; a Great Kiskadee, (Pitangus sulfuratus), Tropical Kingbird, (Tyrannus melancholicus), and a Streaked Flycatcher, (Myiodynastes maculatus).

Rainforest Birds. Aves. Tyrannidae. Myiodynastes maculatus. Streaked Flycatcher. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. VeridionAdventures.

Streaked Flycatcher, (Myiodynastes maculatus)

Just a few feet further on, I saw flying very close to the forest floor, a beautiful little Satyrid butterfly, the Blushing Phantom,  (Cithaerias pireta).  It has transparent wings with a translucent red patch on the rear edge of the hind wing.  It is not easy to see a butterfly with wings as clear as glass, but that faint hint of red will catch the eye sometimes for long enough to see just where it has landed.

Rainforest butterflies. Nymphalidae. Satyrinae. Cithaerias pireta. Blushing Phantom. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Blushing Phantom, (Cithaerias pireta)

Serpentine Portraits: Snakes

Snakes, I know, are not everyone’s favorite creature, but I think I have established the fact in previous blogs that I like snakes.  They are not always the easiest things to photograph; they do have the annoying habit of disappearing very quickly.  Even if you can get one to stay still for a period of time, they are so linear that it is akin to trying to take a detailed image of a long piece of string.  So I settle on trying to get the portrait shots.

After lunch as I was walking back to my cabin, another photo opportunity occurred.  On front of me on the forest floor was a young Barred Forest Racer.  Lowering myself slowly to the ground I managed to maneuver myself into a position where I could get some nice close up head shots.

The Barred Forest Racer, (Dendrophidion percarinatum), is a diurnal frog eater.  It has those beautiful huge eyes and typically hunts with its head raised above the forest floor.  The name “Racer” would suggest that the snake is capable of a fair turn of speed and it is.  The barred markings running along the length of the body make focusing on that rapidly moving linear form almost impossible.  Although there is no hard data, herpetologists are currently concerned about globally declining snake numbers.  After many years of very rarely seeing these pretty snakes, this year I have encountered more than in total for the past nine years.  They have not all been sightings in one area, but all over the grounds.  This one posed very calmly for its portrait before disappearing into the undergrowth.  Apart from the eyes, the other stunning feature is that striking bright yellow upper lip.

Rainforest snakes. Squamata. Serpentes. Colubridae. Dendrophidion percarinatum. Barred Forest Racer. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Barred Forest Racer, (Dendrophidion percarinatim)

The Northern Cat-eyed Snake, (Leptodeira septentrionalis), is a nocturnal snake.  It has those large eyes with vertical pupils that resemble cat’s eyes which give it the literal name.  They are specialist feeders on frogs and frog’s eggs, so once the sun sets they emerge around the pond to search for prey.  They are venomous, but rear fanged.  The venom is about as toxic as required to subdue a frog and it is almost impossible to induce one to bite.  But once the sun goes down, out they come, cruising over the vegetation surrounding the pond, their heads under the leaves, searching for the eggs of Red-eyed Green Treefrogs which have been laid on the undersides of the leaves overhanging the pond.  For a snake, frog’s eggs are a nice protein packed meal that neither fight back nor run away, so in essence, a perfect food package.  Some nights around the Bosque pond, especially during the height of the amphibian breeding season, there can be up to 50 Cat-eyed Snakes, all searching for those frog eggs.

Rainforest snakes. Squamata. Serpentes. Colubridae. Leptodeira septentrionalis. Cat-eyed Snake. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Cat-eyed Snake, (Leptodeira septentrionalis)

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

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