Archive for the ‘Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog’ Tag

An Orgy of Green Pain   6 comments


Philip Davison Nature Diaries. Bosque del Cabo Rain Forest Lodge.

Parachuting into an Orgy

The past week has been a mixture of sun and rain.  The days have been gloomy with heavy, brooding overcast skies.  Occasionally the clouds part and the sun has shone down to light up the shadows.  But the menacing grey blanket that covering the area from north to south and east to west always threatened to unleash a downpour.  Sometimes the drizzle filled the air from dawn to dusk but you knew there was more to come.  By late afternoon the light rain would turn to heavy and by the time the sun had set below the horizon then the heavens would open drenching one and all.

The amphibians have been enjoying the onset of the rainy season, their numbers increasing over the last month but these more persistent nightly deluges have had the frogs collecting in huge numbers and rejoicing in a reproductive frenzy.  One frog that responds to torrential rain is the Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog, (Agalychnis spurrelli).

Agalychnis spurrelli. Hylidae. Pseudomedusinae.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog, (Agalychnis spurrelli)

One evening, just after sunset it started to rain heavily and by next morning we had experienced 11 inches of rain.  That was the trigger that stimulated hundreds of Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frogs to leave the canopy, which is where they reside out of view, and launch themselves into the air.  This frog has a uniformly colored dark mossy green upper side.  Its flanks are a pale lemon yellow.  It has large heavily webbed hands and feet of the same buttery hue and, of course, it has the large red eyes.  As they leap out of the canopy they spread the fingers and toes so the webbing is stretched tight, quite literally into a parachute of living tissue, which allows the frogs to glide down to the vegetation surrounding the pond without ill effect.

Each male quickly establishes a territorial perch from which he begins to call in an attempt to entice an egg-laden female his way.  The call is a short, soft, almost electronically-sounding sound.  Selecting a male on the quality of his call, the deeper the sound the better, the female makes her way over to the chosen chorister, he jumps on her back and they set off to visit the pond.  The female absorbs water through her skin and fills her bladder.  Now the female, not only with a body full of eggs but also carrying the male on her back, makes her way to a deposition site.  She chooses a broad leaf overhanging the surface of the pond and she commences to lay a sheet of eggs across the leaf.  At the same time as she releases the eggs from her body the male fertilizes them.  This normally take place just before daylight.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica. Philip Davison.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog Eggs.

As dawn breaks and the sun rises, the frogs have to get out of the light and into the dark as quickly as possible.  They don’t have time to get back to the canopy, parachuting down was a quick descent but the ascent involves a 100 foot climb and there is little time.  The sun continues to steadfastly climb in the sky.  Hundreds of frogs are now scrambling desperately to escape the skin-drying effects of its harsh rays.  This was the point at which I arrived, just in time to see countless small green goblinesque figures running along branches in a desperate effort to find a not already fully accommodated shelter.  I was not the only one.  A Bare-throated Tiger Heron had found itself an early morning breakfast bonanza and was picking off the unfortunate amphibians one after the other.

The larvae will develop in the eggs for about 7 or 8 days before the gelatinous mass liquidizes and the wiggling tadpoles drop into the pond water.  There they will complete the tadpole stage and if they make it through the aquatic stage will finally emerge after 7 or 8 weeks as a tiny froglet which will eventually have to make its way to the tree tops.  The Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog is an explosive breeder and these episodes can only be witnessed following those biblical-like rain storms.

Agalychnis spurrelli. Bosque del Cabo.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frogs After Sunrise

Showing Off in the Green Room

The forest flora can be flamboyant and gaudy or subtle and subdued.  The blooms may appear abruptly in a visual feast or occur in small numbers isolated and hidden in the dark green depths the subcanopy.  Some plants flower but once a year, a spectacular show drawing the eye like a beacon which is setting the tree tops ablaze and illuminating the forest canopy in a patchwork of color on natures silvian canvas.  It is no wonder that the largest percentage of insect life resides and thrives at the tree tops.  Here you will find a kaleidoscope of dancing butterflies waltzing from bloom to bloom in search of the energy rich nectar, so vital in allowing these ephemeral beauties to complete the final stage of their short adult lives.  Other plants may flower continuously throughout the year but only producing one or two blooms at a time.

It is not just the butterflies that rely upon the flowers.  Many other insects are attracted by their rich colors and evocative scents.  The plants will sometimes target birds or mammals to do their bidding.  The plants offer the animals rewards but there is method to their bribery.  These are windless forests; a zephyr is the strongest a current of air that will move through the trees.  Pollen needs to be transported from one plant to another in order for the plants to reproduce.  It helps if the plant can target and reward a specific agent to enable its pollen to be deposited in the flower of the same species.

The plants cannot rely on wind for seed dispersal either.  Once more they have evolved the means by which to encourage animals into becoming innocent vectors of transfer and movement of the seeds that will potentially give rise to the next generation.

Over the last week as I was walking along the paths through the forest I could see some of those secretive flowers blooming in the shadows as well as some bright vivid forms, their colorful flower heads breaking up the somber borders of the trails.  One of the more subtle blooms was that of the Spiral Ginger,  (Costus scaber).  The flowering head is a rather stout, deep red spike composed of bracts, each of which will produce a bloom.

Costus scaber. Costaceae. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

Spiral Ginger, (Costus scaber)

The fiery orange, yellow-tipped flower sticking out of the bract attracts in hummingbirds which are the principal pollinator of this species.  The colors red, orange and yellow are commonly used by plants to attract hummingbirds, these being the colors in the spectrum that are complementary to the background green of the leaves.  These are also very hot colors whereas green is a cool color and so they readily stand out, particularly to animals that have keen color vision such as birds.  The hummingbirds hover in front of the flowers and probe within searching for the nectaries.  As they do so, the head and bill pick up pollen from the anthers which is transferred to the stigma of the next flower it visits thereby effectively pollinating the plant.

The family Costaceae is closely related to the ginger family: Zingerberaceae.  Most gingers are Asian but there are some gingers native to the Neotropics.  Most costas are American but there are some costas that are native to Asia.  There are 23 species of costa native to Costa Rica, 14 of which are found on the Osa Peninsula.  As they all look similar it is not too hard to identify them as costas but it is a little more difficult to identify them to species level.

Queen of Pain

Insects are fascinating creatures to photograph.  Once you have downloaded the image and zoom in, as long as the picture is in sharp focus, then the body form and colors become compelling.  All of the joints, the body plates and the detail of the head and wings will keep the naturalist mesmerized.  You can conjecture as to the function of all those different hairs and how the body parts articulate.  Not only that but how does the creature live, what is life history and what are the multitudinous, complex interconnected threads that tie it into the ecosystem of its habitat.  Insects complete their lives in almost as many ways as there are species.  Many insect’s lives are a mystery to us, we simply have no idea how they get from egg to adult.  That is not surprising as there are more species of insect on the planet than any other group of animals.  Because we don’t know, then that makes us more eager to study and discover more information to unravel those mysteries.

One groups of animals, the Hymenoptera, bees, wasps and ants, provide an endless source of material for research.  Many of them have well documented life histories and they work to a general pattern but there are variations.  I saw this wasp guarding its brood in a nest under a leaf in the tropical garden.

Although the wasp appeared to be alone, it was one of the social wasps belonging to the family: Vespidae.  The nest is made of carton which is a chewed up fibrous vegetable material, quite often wood, which forms the cells into which the eggs are laid.  The egg hatches and the larva develops, growing rapidly on a diet of chewed up insect prey captured by the queen.  The queen only uses her sting for defense, the prey is caught and chewed-up in the mandibles.  A pale larva lacking in pigment, can be seen in one of the cells.   When the larva pupates, the entrance of the cell is capped by a carton lid from which a new adult will emerge sometime later.

Polistinae sp. Hymenoptera. Vesperidae. Polistinae.

Paper Wasp Queen on Nest, (Polistinae sp)

There were, in fact, two wasps sitting on the nest.  This suggests that they belong to the subfamily: Polistinae.  These colonies consist of one or two queens both of which are responsible for the construction of the nest and raising the offspring without the aid of other workers.

Even if nobody told you, then you would learn very quickly from painful experience to leave wasps alone.  The black and yellow coloration of bees, wasps and hornets is the most visible of all color combinations.  As I have already mentioned, the wasp does not use its sting to subdue prey but rather uses it to defend itself.  But, as in many cases, it is better to use a deterrent rather than become involved in a physical battle where even though you may win, the probability is that you will sustain some damage yourself.  To ward off any potential threat, the wasps use threatening coloration.  It does not take too many painful encounters before most creatures would learn to avoid anything sporting that vividly distinctive black and yellow.

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

Advertisements

A New Season of Discovery   10 comments


Philip Davison. nature diaries. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

After a five week period away from the Osa Peninsula I am back to carry out another year of research.  For the past sixteen years I have been monitoring populations of both butterflies and amphibians in the forests of Cabo Matapalo on the tip of the Osa Peninsula in South West Costa Rica.  I collect the daily weather data and compare changes in amphibian populations against precipitation and butterflies populations against temperature in an effort to evaluate how or whether climate change effects the fauna of a tropical rain forest.

Marine Toad. Amphibians. Osa Peninsula. Costa Rica.

Marine Toad, (Chaunus marinus)

As I live in the forest and can be found constantly walking the trail systems, camera in hand, it provides ample opportunity to photograph the diversity of life that surrounds me.  I am generally photographically prepared for small things so unless I am going out specifically to capture images of mammals or birds then my photographic galleries generally consist of reptiles, amphibians, all manner of arthropods as well as any plant and fungi features that catch my eye.

Savage's Thin-fingered Frog. Frogs

Savage’s Thin-fingered Frog, (Leptodactylus savegei)

This blog acts as an expanded form of my nature diaries which are simply daily recordings on Excel spreadsheets.  I enjoy sharing my experiences with those who read my blog and over the years the number of subscribers constantly increases.  If you are a first-time reader, then welcome and I hope you enjoy the content and the photos.  I am not a professional photographer but I do try and take the best composed shots I can.

Banana Frog. Wet Season.

Banana Frog, (Dendropsophus ebreccatus)

The blog also allows visitors to the area an insight of what they might expect to see in their absence or when they arrive as well as providing a small amount of information about the natural history of the organisms I feature.  I try to post one blog a week but sometimes time constraints means there may be occasions when this is not possible.

Small-headed Frog. Pond life.

Small-headed Frog, (Dendropsophus micracephalus

For me the year does not begin on the January 1st but rather on my return to the area in November.  At this time of year we should be moving out of the main rainy season, which is what caused me to leave for a month or so, and into the dry season.  There is no exact date and sometimes the rains hang on until December while other times the sun has started to shine constantly by mid-November.  Anyway, here we go with the opening blog of the 20016/17 season.

Olive-snouted Treefrog. Philip Davison

Olive-snouted Treefrog, (Scinax elaeochrous)

First things first.  November normally heralds the ending of the rainy season.  Sometimes the wet period may continue into December but by now we are looking towards a drying of the forest.  Not so this year.  This has been, without doubt, the wettest November I have recorded in 17 years, 185 inches of rain fell in that 30-day period.  The area was briefly closed down as bridges were not crossable, roads were not passable and the local town of Puerto Jimenez and its attendant landing strip were closed due to being under water.  This may bode well for the coming dry season when for 4/5 months the area receives little or no rain whatsoever but at the moment the forest floors have rivulets with running water everywhere.

Red-eyed Green Tree Frog. Costa Rica

Red-eyed Green Tree Frog, (Agalychnis callidryas)

The daily torrential downpour has made wildlife spotting rather difficult.  It is neither easy to see or hear anything in those conditions.  In the inter deluge periods I have been out searching for whatever I could find and it may come as no surprise that the amphibians most certainly have enjoyed the excess water.  All the usual members of the pond community have been out calling; Banana Frogs, Small-headed Frogs, Red-eyed Green Tree Frogs, Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frogs, Savage’s Thin-fingered Frog, Marine Toads and Masked Smiliscas.  Even the largest tree frogs in Costa Rica, the Milky Frogs have been coming out, which is unusual this time of year.  Away from the pond the Tink Frogs and Fitzinger’s Rain Frogs call as soon as the sun sets.  Here are some photographs of the amphibians you may be lucky enough to see if you visit the Osa Peninsula now.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog. Torrential Rain.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog (Agalychnis spurrelli)

Tink Frog. Frog chorus.

Tink Frog, (Diasporus diastema)

Gladiator Frog. Mud puddle nest

Gladiator Frog, (Hypsiboas rosenbergi).

Bolivian Frog. Foam nest.

Bolivian Frog, (Leptodactylus bolivianus)

Masked Tree Frog.

Masked Smilisca, (Smilisca phaeota)

Philip Davison is a Biologist, Photographer and Writer based in Costa Rica.

CATERPILLARS: DON’T BE TOO RASH   2 comments


 

Veridion Adventures. Philip Davison. Rainforest animals. Rainforest plants

Orgy of Frenzied Frog Sex

Today has been a reasonably quiet day, overcast with no sun or rain, but with a gentle breeze constantly blowing.  The subdued atmosphere was briefly interrupted by some visitors who had been up and out walking before breakfast.  They had been over to the tropical garden area where there is a large pond.  Just before sunrise they had witnessed a frog orgy, an explosive breeding episode of the Parachuting Red-eyed Green Treefrog, (Agalychnis spurrelli).

The previous night, they had emerged on mass; throwing themselves from the tops of the trees they use the large, heavily webbed bright yellow hands and feet as parachutes to glide down to the ground level vegetation.  What the visitors had then come across were hundreds of paired up males and females laying sheets of eggs on the upper surfaces of the leaves around the pond.  For those who went a little later to see the spectacle, it was too late.  As the sun rises, the frogs make their way higher into the bushes and shrubs and then they tuck themselves up under the leaves to avoid the potentially desiccating effects of the sun’s rays.  You can still see them; they are all lined up, appearing as little silhouettes as the rising sun shines down through the plant leaves.

Rainforest frogs. Hylidae. Phyllomedusinae. Agalychnis spurrellii. Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Parachuting Red-eyed Green Tree Frog, (Agalychnis spurrelli)

More or less the same species of birds and butterflies have been seen in the grounds.  There has however been another migrant turn up, one more warbler, the Yellow Warbler, (Dendroica petechia).  As the name suggests, it has a yellow head and breast, with a dirtier yellow color to the back and wings.  The distinguishing feature is the male’s breast which is streaked with a series of orange dashes.

Some Mammals: Familiar or Not

Monkeys are a common sighting around the grounds of Bosque but there are two or three other mammals that visitors will see and quite often get mixed up even though they not related and do not remotely resemble one another.

The White-nosed Coati, (Nasua narica), is related to the raccoon familiar to most people in North America.  They have a deep rich brown fur and a little bit of white coloration around the muzzle which gives them their name.  The tail is sometimes ringed with dark and pale alternating bands and is generally held straight up in the air while the head is down foraging.   Just like their northern cousins, coatis are omnivorous and they will eat anything they can their paws on; grubs and crabs dug out of the ground, eggs and chicks from nesting birds as well as fruit.  They are accomplished climbers and today I watched one up a Coconut Palm, working away in an effort to dislodge the prized meal from its point of attachment.

The males are solitary and if you ever hear of one being referred to as a coati mundi, that is a single solitary male.  The females are gregarious and will be found in large groups accompanied by the young ones.

The other mammal commonly seen around the grounds is a large rodent, the Agouti, (Dasyprocta punctata). They are big caviomorph rodents, the closest relative of which people will be familiar with are the Guinea Pigs.  Agoutis are seed eaters.  Today there were several sitting under a large fruiting palm tree in front of the cabins, feeding on the fallen palm nuts.  Agoutis have the ability to sit on their haunches and you will quite often see them with large, tough shelled nuts, turning them in their front paws to gnaw through and get to the nutritious seed inside.  A common question I get is “What is that large rabbit-like creature with tiny ears and no tail”?  Easy, it is an Agouti.

A Lucky Escape

Tonight, after dinner, as I was talking to some guests in the restaurant, there was a splat behind me.  Normally anything going splat would be a treefrog jumping, freefalling and hitting the ground.  They don’t seem to suffer from the experience.  But on this occasion it was not a treefrog but rather surprisingly a young Grey Four-eyed Opossum that had lost its footing in the roof beams and fallen.  To be honest, it looked as if the impact had killed it.  I picked it up to remove it and could feel its heart was still beating, so I took it out into the entrance, kept it warm and within 5 minutes it had made a full recovery.  Not only that but in terms of thanks, it ran up my arm and sat on my shoulder so that I could return and show the diners that the day had a happy ending.

Caterpillars: Don’t Be Too Rash

One of the more surprising things about the area is that given the number of species of butterfly I have recorded, and bear in mind that number will be dwarfed by the number of moth species there are in the area, I very rarely see caterpillars.  When I do, I try to get a photo to add to the records.  A sentiment that I have now repeated on several occasions, is to bemoan the lack of adequate reference material to help identify certain organisms.  Caterpillars fall into one of two categories; very distinctive or not.  Even those you think may pose no problem in identifying turn out to be not as distinct as you first thought.  Over the past couple of weeks I have happened upon two caterpillars that have proved slightly easier to put a name to than normal.

 

 

This is the caterpillar of one of the Hawk moths, a Sphinx Moth, (Xylophanes chiron).  I found it on the underside of a leaf in the tropical garden.  The adult I found near my cabin.  The adult moth is to be found resting during the day on mossy covered tree trunks.  The body of the moth is covered in dense green “fur”.  The wings too, are a mossy green and both these features blend the moth in perfectly with its background.  The camouflage is aided by the wings having a broken band patterned as an exact copy of tree bark.

Rainforest caterpillars. Sphingidae. Xylophanes chiron. Hawk moth. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Hawk Moth, (Xylophanes chiron), caterpillar

Rainforest Moths. Sphingidae. Xylophanes chiron. Hawkmoth. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Hawk Moth, (Xylophanes chiron)

 

The second caterpillar is so very distinctive there should be no problem identifying it.  But there would be a big problem if you got too close.  The caterpillar belongs to yet another moth, a very insignificant small brown moth, the Saddleback Moth, (Acharia stimulea), belonging to the family Limacodidae.  The adult is the equivalent of what birders refer to as a “little brown job”.  Take a look at the caterpillar again though; its body has many protuberances bearing a covering of sharp spiny hairs.  If you touch the caterpillar, even ever so slightly, these urticating hairs deliver a chemical that will immediately result in a painful ulcerated rash that will last for several days.  So with the caterpillars, don’t be too rash to touch.

Rainforest caterpillars. Limacodidae. Arachia stimulea. Saddleback Moth. Costa Rica. Philip Davison. Veridion Adventures.

Saddleback Moth,(Arachia stimulea), caterpillar

Philip Davison Is a Biologist, Writer and Photographer Based in Costa Rica

 

%d bloggers like this: